geol 1001- test 1 - The universe is about 15 billion years old The solar system is 4.5 billion years old Consists of sun and 8 planets circling it(9.3 2

geol 1001- test 1 - The universe is about 15 billion years...

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The universe is about 15 billion years old The solar system is 4.5 billion years old Consists of sun and 8 planets circling it (9.3) 2 types of planets a. terrestrial: small, rocky, dense Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars b. Jovian: large, gassy, light Jupiter Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Our solar system is formed from relatively cold material Our solar system is formed from a nebula of gas and dust that undergoes accretion Gravitational attraction - the larger a body the more dist and gas it pulls in - accretion (9.3) Most of material goes to form sun; leftovers form planets, comets, meteorites Earth warms up very rapidly due to: 1. Accretion - collision - heating 2. Compression: inner layers get heated 3. Decay of radioactive materials inside earth - continues today Early earth became (partially) molten caused in part by collision with mars sized body. Created the moon (9.4)
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Then started to cool down. Rocks are very poor conductors of heat. Once crust forms inside still remains very hot - even today. Earth may have been uniform in composition (inside and outside) at first, but because of heating became differentiated - layered (fig (1.5) Once temperature (T) inside high enough some iron melts and "falls" to the center, this releases energy and causes more heating Runaway process: lots of iron melts and falls to center (9.5) called the iron catastrophe This huge heating event causes "boiling off" of volatiles from the inside. Water and other gases "belched" to the outside. "The big burp" forms early ocean and atmosphere (9.6) Both are very different from what we have today. Look at layering in 2 different ways. Distances measured from the surface of the earth = 6400 km Based on composition (1.5) "Heat engines" 1. internal- heat inside the earth. led to layering of earth and drives plate tectonics
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2. external- energy from the sun. "drives" atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere Principle of uniformitarianism - "the present is the key to the past" Geologic processes we see today have worked in much the same way throughout geological time. By and large geological processes have operated slowly/steadily (1.2) pg 3 Occasionally punctuated by collision with meteorites/comets (1.2) pg 3 These have immerse consequences in very short period of time. create immense craters, global fires (burn vegetation), throw up immense gas clouds, can readily affect global climate and cause (faunal) extinction. most important: formation of the moon (1.5) Chapter 3: minerals Definition: 1. Naturally occurring 2. Solid, inorganic 3. Specific chemical composition - important 4. Regular internal arrangement of atoms - important Rocks are aggregates of mineral(s) Atom - smallest portion that has properties of the (parent) element
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Look inside the atom (3.2) pg 53 Center has nucleus - small, heavy. Around this circles small particles in orbits (of solar system, inside nucleus has) 1. Protons - each has a positive (electrical) charge and a mass = one on atomic scale 2. Neutrons - no electrical charge, mass = one circling in (different orbits) are electrons - each with negative electrical charge and mass very close to zero.
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  • Spring '08
  • idontknow
  • Atom, Van der Waals, TDA

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