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ARA 101 MIDTERM ILANGUAGE Arabic is the language of the Arab people originally from the Arabian Peninsula. Heritage is anything that is inherited by a group of people from its past ancestors, anything that is passed on from one generation to another. Heritage = turathLiterature = adab [original meaning of adab = good behaviour, ethics].Culture = thaqafaLanguage = lughaPyramids are not Arab [Arabs came to Egypt after Islam]. Semitic family of languagesPhonecianAssyrianSyriacAramaicHebrewArabicThe word “Semitic” is derived from the biblical name Shem or Sam [one of Noah’s sons – who is considered the father of the Semitics people].Proto-Semitic: the mother of all the extinct and existing Semitic languages. Arabia is considered the home of Proto-Semitic.Arabic is the youngest of the Semitic languages.Arab is classified by some as a Hamito-Semitic language.The main characteristics of the Semitic languages includes its triconsonantal root-system .Arabic is considered the richest in linguistic literature.Many Arabic languages exist:Northern Arabic languages [Lihyanite and Thamudic]South Arabic languages [Mihri, Soqotri].It is now one of the six official International languages. Unlike any other language, Arabic has taken the role of an International language twice. Arabic is spoken by more than 130 million people in the Arabic speaking countries. Outside the Arab Homeland, more than 5 million Arabic speakers. Arab land occupies a very important geographical region and owns a lot of natural resources.
Diglossia is a Greek sociolinguistic term consisting of two elements, di – two, glossia – language/tongue. It refers to two types of the same language co-existing, although they each serve a different function.Bilingualism refers to a situation where two different languages exist in a community. [multilingual = 3+]Diglossia can be observed in Greek, Swiss German, and Arabic. In the Arabic context, diglossia refers to the co-existence of the standard form and the colloquial form of Arabic. Arabic diglossia goes back to the pre-Islamic era. Standard form [Al Fusha] = Classical Arabic + Modern Standard Arabic. Contains a high degree of uniformity and is the official standard language in all Arabic speaking countries.Colloquial Arabic [Al a’miyya] = the actual language of everyday activities, mainly spoken, varies from one area/country to another.Some people tried to encourage the replacement of Standard Arabic with Colloquial Arabic. However, they faced the following problems1.Standard Arabic was the language in the traditional heritage [books, Quran, etc]2.Standard Arabic had a religious attitude.