Chapter 7 Notes - Chapter 7 Water and Atmospheric Moisture...

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Chapter 7: Water and Atmospheric Moisture Water on Earth o Outgassing – continuing process by which water and water vapor emerge from layers deep within and below the crust or below the earth’s surface. o Worldwide Equilibrium Water is the most common compound on the surface of the Earth. Eustasy – worldwide changes in sea level Relate to water volume in the oceans and not changes in the overall quantity of planetary water. Some changes result when the amount of water stored in glaciers and ice sheets varies. ( Glacio-Eustatic) Warmer Times – Sea level rises Cooler Times – Sea level lowers o Distribution of Earth’s Water Today From geographic point of view, ocean and land surfaces are distributed unevenly. Most continental land is in Northern Hemisphere. Southern Ocean – the extreme southern portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. 2.78% of Earth’s water is freshwater Saline Lakes & Salty Inland Seas Exist in regions of interior river drainage which allow salts to become concentrated. A water molecule traveling through atmospheric and surface-water paths moves through the entire hydrologic cycle in less than two weeks. A water molecule in deep ocean circulation, groundwater, or a glacier, takes thousands of years to migrate through the system. Unique Properties of Water o Two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. o The nature of the hydrogen oxygen bond gives the hydrogen side of a water molecule a positive charge and the oxygen side a negative charge. As a result of this polarity, water molecules attract each other (hydrogen bonding). o Pure water is rare in nature because something is usually dissolved in it. o Hydrogen Bonding Creates surface tension. Cause of capillarity. Causes a meniscus, or surface of water. o Heat Properties For water to be changed from one state to another, heat energy must be absorbed or liberated.
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To cause a change of state, the amount of heat energy must be sufficient to affect the hydrogen bonds between molecules. Phase Change – a change from one state of water to another Sublimation – the direct change of ice to water vapor or water vapor to ice. Ice, the Solid Phase o Reaches highest density as water at 4 degrees Celsius. o Expansion in volume that accompanies the freezing process results in a decrease in density. Water, the Liquid Phase o Assumes the shape of its container and is a non- compressible fluid. o For ice to change to water, heat energy must increase the motion of the water molecules to break some of the hydrogen bonds. o Heat energy involved in the phase change of ice to water is latent heat and is hidden within the structure of water.
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