Chapter 12 Notes

Chapter 12 Notes - Chapter 12 Tectonics, Earthquakes, and...

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Chapter 12 Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanism Earth’s Surface Relief Features Relief – vertical elevation differences in the landscape Topography – the undulating form of Earth’s surface including its relief Crustal Orders of Relief GPS – global positioning system used for determining location and elevation Digital Elevation Models – aid in the scientific analysis of topography, area altitude distributions, slopes, and local stream drainage characteristics. First Order of Relief Coarsest level of landforms Consists of continents and oceans Continental Landmasses – portions of crust that reside above or near sea level, including the undersea continental shelves along the coastlines Ocean Basins – entirely below sea level Approximately 71% of earth is covered by water Second Order of Relief Intermediate level of landforms for both continental and ocean-basin features Continental Features – mountain masses, plains, lowlands Ocean Basin Features – continental rises, slopes, abyssal plains, mid-ocean ridges, submarine canyons, oceanic trenches Third Order of Relief Most detailed Includes individual mountains, cliffs, valleys, hills, and other landforms of smaller scale Hypsometry Hypsometric Curve – shows the distribution of Earth’s surface by area and elevation in relation to sea level On the average, oceans are much deeper than continental regions are high Underwater ocean basins, ocean floor, and submarine mountain ranges form the Earth’s largest landscape Earth’s Topographic Regions Plains – areas with local relief of less than 100m and slope angles of 5 ° or less High Tablelands – elevations exceeding 1520m Hills – dominate Africa Low Tablelands – dominate Africa Mountains – local relief exceeding 600m and occur on each continent Widely Spaced Mountains
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Depressions Crustal Formation Processes Continental Shields – region where a craton is exposed at the surface
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Chapter 12 Notes - Chapter 12 Tectonics, Earthquakes, and...

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