Unit 1 Study Notes - IDC4U.pdf - Multiple choice Fill in...

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Multiple choiceFill in the blank (word bank)Short answerCase studyReflection/case analysisCarl rogersBelieved that for a person to ‘grow’ they need an environment that provides themwith:Genuineness (openness and self-disclosure)Acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard)Empathy (being listened to and understood)The focus was on client reflectionTherapist’s role was to listen and help guide the client in their free expression.Believed that the self-concept has three different components:(Self-image) The view you have of yourself(Self-esteem or self-worth) How much value you place on yourself(Ideal self) What you wish you were really likePersonality vs Character EthicsCharacter: The mental and moral qualities distinctive to an individual.PersonalityWHAT WE SEEM TO BECharacterWHAT WE AREPersonality is often referred to asthe masked identity of a personReflected by the outer appearanceand behaviour that may or may notbe true to inner character.Example of attributes: Sense ofhumour, being friendly, interestsand passions. (ie. That girl isfunny)Character is closely related tomoral and ethical values. It focuseson the traits that are unique to aperson.Character is often regarded as thetrue self, meaning that itrepresents deep-rooted attributespossessed by a person.Example of attributes: Honesty,trust, respect, responsibility,leadership, loyalty, courage (ie.That person has a great character)Elements that Shape Personality and Character: social, cultural, familyMorality is about the morals and personal ethics someone has. Our morals canbe affected by the people around us and can be formed by what we see as rightvs wrong.Empirical psychology- work done through experiments, personality tests, andobservation
Understanding the SelfSelf-concept originated from our interactions with others.Our social experiences affect our self-concept because of individualisticsocieties.Reflected appraisal: we detect others’ reactions to us in their faces, mannerismsand comments and, thus, begin to incorporate these mirrored evaluations intoour self-concepts.Ideal self: the self we’d like to be.Real self: the self we think we are.Negative self: aspects of the self that you would like to change.Self-esteem: your feeling of self-worth.Self Esteem Across the LifespanFluctuations in self-esteem reflect changes inOur social environmentMaturational changesPuberty and cognitive declines in old ageMAJOR CHANGESCHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-ESTEEMCHILDHOODSelf-esteem starts high but slowly declinesTheir self-view are unrealistically positiveAs they develop cognitively, they begin to basetheir self-evaluations on external feedback andsocial comparisonsADOLESCENCESelf-esteem continues to declineResearchers have attributed the adolescentdecline to body image and other problemsassociated with pubertyADULTHOODSelf-esteem increases, peaking around the late60sMidlife is characterized by peaks in achievement,mastery, and control over self and environmentThe personality changes that occur duringadulthood tend to reflect increasing levels ofmaturity and adjustmentOLD AGESelf-esteem declines and begins to drop aroundage 70May be due to the dramatic confluence of

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