GEOG 102 Week 2

GEOG 102 Week 2 - 2:05:00 PM Geography 102 Energy Seasons...

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11/09/2007 16:05:00 September 11, 2007 Geography 102 Energy, Seasons and Atmosphere Chapters 2 + 3 Lecture Outline: The Solar System Electromagnetic Radiation The Seasons Atmospheric Composition Atmospheric Temperature Air Pollution The Solar System -formed from a large, slowly rotating nebula according to the plantesmial  hypothesis. -Earth’s orbit is elliptical: it is closest to the sun at  PERIHELION (January 3 rd )             it is furthest from the sun at  APHELION (July 4 th ) -plane of the ecliptic  = plane touching all points of the Earth’s orbit
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-the planets all revolve counterclockwise – around the sun. The Sun contains 99.9% of all matter from the original nebula: -fusion reactions join hydrogen nuclei creating helium and enormous amounts of  energy. -also emits electronically charged particles known as  solar wind Electromagnetic Radiation  is the collection or spectrum of waves of a wide  range of wavelengths traveling quickly away from the surface of an object. -it is the form of energy emitted by all objects   such as light and heat. Wavelength of Electromagnetic Radiation  A wavelength is the distance separating one wave crest from the next wave  crest. -the shorter the wavelength, the more waves will pass during a unit of time  (shorter = more concentrated energy) The Electromagnetic Spectrum The sun emits: 8% Ultraviolet light  47% Visible light  45% Infrared light Radiation and Temperature
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Two physical principles concerning the emission of electromagnetic radiation: 1 st , there is an inverse relationship between the range of wavelengths of the  radiation that an object emits and the temperature of the object.  -hotter objects emit radiation with: -cooler objects emit radiation with: 2 nd  , hot objects radiate more energy than cooler objects. Radiation Laws : two laws describing physical principles concerning the  emission of electromagnetic radiation: 1.Stefan-Boltzmann Law 2.Wien’s Law Shortwave (Solar) Radiation  is energy emitted by the sun -the sun’s surface temperature is 6000 degrees C -electromagnetic energy travels outward in straight lines or rays from the Sun at  a speed of about 300,000 km/sec -as solar radiation travels through space, none of it is lost, but rays spread apart  as they move away from the sun 
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