Torts Outline - Torts Outline Table of Contents I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X Introduction to Torts.2 a Vicarious Liability.3 b Elements of

Torts Outline - Torts Outline Table of Contents I II III IV...

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Torts Outline Table of Contents I. Introduction to Torts ..................................................... 2 a. Vicarious Liability ................................................ 3 b. Elements of Negligence ...................................... 4 II. Breach .......................................................................... 6 a. Hand Formula ..................................................... 6 b. Reasonable Person and Children ........................ 7 c. Reasonable Person and the Physically Impaired.8 d. Reasonable Person and the Mentally Ill .............. 8 e. Reasonable Person and Superior Knowledge ...... 8 f. The Role of Judge and Jury .................................. 8 g. The Role of Custom in the Standard of Car ......... 10 h. Breach Per Se ..................................................... 10 III. Proof of Negligence ...................................................... 13 a. Special Cases of Medical Malpractice ................. 15 IV. Duty ............................................................................. 16 a. No Duty Imposed for Policy Reasons .................. 20 b. Landowners and Occupiers ................................. 23 c. Intrafamily Duties ............................................... 25 d. Non-Physical Harm ............................................. 26 i. Psychological Harm ................................... 26 ii. Economic Harm ......................................... 29 V. Causation ..................................................................... 31 a. Cause in Fact ...................................................... 32 b. Proximate Cause ................................................. 36 VI. Joint and Several Liability ............................................. 39 VII. Defenses ..................................................................... 40 a. Comparative and Contributory Negligence ........ 40 b. Assumption of Risk ............................................. 41 VIII. Strict Liability ............................................................... 44 IX. Products Liability .......................................................... 45 a. Manufacturing Defects ....................................... 47 b. Design Defects ................................................... 48 c. Warning Defects ................................................. 49 d. Defenses ............................................................. 50 X. Flow Charts 1
Torts Outline Introduction to Tort Law Tort law is state law o Developed from common law “The Law of Externalities” – where one who does not bear the results of his/her action Why do we need tort law? o Compensation o Fairness – useless o Retribution and Prevention of Self-Help o Deterrence and Efficiency – best reason Social – Total Welfare o An action is socially desirable if it benefits one party more than it injures another so the first party can fully compensate the second party and still be better of o We want to look forward, not backwards o Want to encourage good accidents and discourage bad ones Case: Hammontree o Should strict liability or negligence apply to drivers of automobile accidents? o The Hammontree’s wanted to recover under strict liability, similar to products liability. o Court did not find for them; finding Jenner strictly liable would not change his behavior. Strict Liability (SL) v. Negligence o SL – liability imposed on a person regardless of fault o Neg. – conduct that falls short to the degree of care a reasonable person would have in the same circumstances Liability Spectrum o Absolute Liability – “you did it, you pay for it” o Strict Liability – “if you caused it, you pay for it” o Negligence – “what would the prudent reasonable person do?” o No Liability – “you are not held responsible” Oliver W. Holmes on liability o Requirement for liability? Choice; “The power to avoid is … condition for liability” You can’t get compensated unless you can prove that choice was involved. “Moral Element” – immoral to subject someone to strict liability when they don’t have a choice o “the public generally profits by individual activity” 2
SL pushes people away from the activity, negligence impacts your level of care SL is rare; limited to things like animals o State as a universal insurance Thinks that state interference is evil; gives the wrong incentives to people Vicarious Liability (VL) o Based on Respondeat Superior – “let the master answer” o

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