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Intro to Philosophy

Intro to Philosophy - Intro to...

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Intro to Philosophy ( [email protected] = teacher assistant) (Office hours 12:00-2:00 1022 Old Father) Philosophy is the attempt to get clear and careful answers to the most important questions a person can ask. The content of the definition is the answers of philosophy. The aims of philosophy and philosophical method are to address the components of the weird. Philosophical questions 1. What can we know and how do we know it? 2. What’s the relationship between minds and bodies? 3. What is a person? 4. Do we have free will? 5. What if anything is morally required of us and why? Class slogan= No claims for free. (We want to know what a claim is, what is a free claim, and why a claim can’t be free.) A claim is a statement that a person puts forward as true. Philosophers make claims to answer the questions above. These are known as conclusions. Claims require justification. You justify a claim by making other claims that support a conclusion. A series of claims and justification is a premise. An argument is when two or more parties offer up a series of opposite claims (premises) as true and try to justify them. If you make a claim then you must justify it. A lot of the things that we know come from our senses. De Carte= A philosopher that said that our senses deceive us. Observed that we can dream dreams that seem so real that are indistinguishable from normal reality. Conditional statements= If then sentences. First part is the antecedent, the second part is the consequence. Modes Tollens= If P then Q therefore R is true
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Deductive argument= an implementation of a method or strategy in an argument. Convince them that your conclusion must be correct based on a set of claims that they already accept as true. These are supposed to be absolutely true. True premise are supposed to guarantee the conclusion to be true. The two dimensions to determine if a deductive argument is good are validity and soundness . Valid= If the premise is true then the conclusion is true. Soundness= The premise is true and its valid. Inductive argument= the premise doesn’t guarantee the conclusion to be true, but make the conclusion probable. When you offer a deductive argument, you offer up a set of claims that act as premises. Good argument= conclusive Bad argument= inconclusive. Valid argument= if the premises are true then the conclusion must be true. Ex. If there is a blizzard today class is canceled. Sound= logic This argument is valid, but not sound. The premises are true but the conclusion is false. Truth of the premises does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion. Anytime you have sentences in the If ____ then _____, it will be valid, but it doesn’t have to be sound If one premise is false than the conclusion will always be false. When you have a conditional statement, you can always make a valid conclusion with a negation of the statement.
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