HIST 1310 Study Guide Exam 1 MurphyIdentificationsBering Land Bridge- The first humans to arrive in America came from east Asia across the land bridge. The land bridge is believed to have been created during the last ice agedue to lower sea levels. The first wave of immigrants is believed to be one big wave after discovery and testing of DNA. There are disputes over routes taken, but the BeringLand Bridge is the suggested route based on further research. The immigrants that used this bridge have genetic similarities to the people of Mongolia.Henry the Navigator- The son of King John I of Portugal, Prince Henry never explored himself but created a navigation school in the early 15th century. Portugal got approval from the pope first and then sponsored trips to explore Africa in 1420. Not only did Prince Henry the Navigator help explore the West African coast, he discovered new technology and techniques that helped redesign and improve Portugal’s ships. Henry helped to build up the Portuguese empire throughout his lifetime and contributed to the Christian fight against Muslim trade in eastern Asia and the middle east.Treaty of Tordesillas- The treaty of Tordesillas was signed by both Spain and Portugal in1494. This treaty was created after Portugal complained to the Pope in fear of losing Madeira, Azores, and other potential settlements. The treaty of Tordesillas gave spain alldiscovered land west of an imaginary line that was 270 leagues west of Portugal’s settlement Azores, and east of the imaginary line was given to Portugal. This treaty divided Portuguese and Spain’s “spheres of influence” in the Americas. This treaty also greatly influenced Portugal’s claim to Brazil in 1500. Christopher Columbus- After Spain, Portugal, France, and England initially turned down Columbus’ proposition for a trade mission, Queen Isabel of Spain decided to summonedhim in 1492. The queen decided to take a chance on Columbus, so with the sponsorship from Ferdinand and Isabella, Columbus sailed southwest towards what he thought would be Asian islands. When Columbus first arrived on what was an unknown continent, he believed to be in either Japan, China, or India. After claiming the land in the name of Ferdinand and Isabel, Columbus interacted with the indians. They found many riches on the island and over the next 3 months Columbus interacted with the Taino (or Arawak) and Carib indians. These tribes were both wiped out by European diseases. Columbus described the tribes as “naked, handsome, peaceful, and naive”. Columbus’ explorations are what led to the discovery of the new world.Columbian Exchange- The exchange of plants, animals, human beings, and diseases between the old and new world. Slaves were brought over from Africa to the new world.