lecture 1b - CCHU 9011 Social Divisions in Contemporary...

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Unformatted text preview: CCHU 9011 Social Divisions in Contemporary Societies Lecture 1 Critical Thinking, Social Differences & Social Divisions Professor Samson Tse Department of Social Work and Social Administration Please seek permission from the person above for teaching using this presentation for purposes other than teaching this course. Acknowledgment: Dr Ruby CHAU, course founding teacher 20/01/2015 1 Rundown • • • • Critical Thinking Social Differences Social Divisions Q&A 20/01/2015 2 “Critical thinking, what is that all about? Who cares?...” “批判思考” 批判思考 HKU Inauguration Ceremony for New Students, 28 Aug 2013 20/01/2015 3 Critical Thinking Main References: • Ore, T. (2003) (2nd ed.) The social construction of difference and inequality: Race, class, gender and sexuality, New York: McGraw-Hill. (Part 1) • Brown, K. and Rutter, L. ( 2008) Critical thinking for social work, 2nd ed. Exeter [England]: Learning Matters. (Chs. 1 & 4) • Jones S. (2009), Critical learning for social work students, Exeter [England]: Learning Matters. (Ch.3) 20/01/2015 4 Critical Thinking Four elements of critical thinking (Brookfield 1987 cited in Ore 2003): 1. Identifying and challenging assumptions 2. Awareness of one’s place and time in one’s culture 3. Search for alternative ways of thinking 4. Developing a reflective analysis. 20/01/2015 5 Critical Thinking “Why critical thinking matters? Who cares?” • Enculturation: immersion in our own culture to the point where we assume that our way of life is ‘natural’ or ‘normal’. • Ethnocentrism: the practice of judging another culture using the standards of one’s own 20/01/2015 6 Critical Thinking • Civil Rights – a system based on majority rule – ‘the greatest good for the greatest number’ • Human Rights – a system recognizes each person as an individual and as valuable – everyone has the inalienable rights to housing, food, education, and health care, and that society must provide these to those unable to provide for themselves “Perfect harmony or extreme violation?” 20/01/2015 POINTS OF DISCUSSION 7 Critical Thinking “Intellectual resources for critical thinking” (Brown & Rutter, 2008): • Background knowledge: concepts, beliefs, values, ways of acting, background information (the more you know the better) • Self-reflection: any biases, logical arguments? • Critical thinking “in action”: critical appraisal of arguments, theories, research evidence; how decisions are made 20/01/2015 8 Critical Thinking • Knowledge of strategies: listing, thinking web, flow chart, etc • Habits of mind and ACTIONS: – commitments, – attitudes or habits (e.g. respect for reason and truth, openness rather than defensive attitude) – taking responsible action and upholding professional ethics and values 20/01/2015 9 Reflective Writing Brown & Rutter (2008) p.36 20/01/2015 10 ALL sounds very good BUT… • Heaps more hard work, but it separates the “outstanding” from the “ordinary” (the critique: is it?) • Does not tell you how the critical thinking should be expressed (the critique: “acceptable and less acceptable way?”) • May be in conflict with the Chinese culture, the notion of seeking harmony, collectivism (the critique: “Chinese culture…you must be kidding?”) 20/01/2015 11 FROM Social Differences TO Social Divisions (社會分化) Main References: • Best, S. (2005) Understanding social divisions. London, Thousand Oaks and New Dehli: Sage. pp.1-11 • Braham, P. and Janes, L.(2002) Social differences and divisions. Oxford and Massachusetts: Blackwell. (Introduction) • Payne,G. (2006) (ed) (2nd ed) Social divisions. Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. (Chs. 1 & 15) 20/01/2015 12 Class exercise “Why, I wonder…why did you pick those features as THE DIFFERENCES?” Please share with your partner. 20/01/2015 13 Identifying Social Differences • Different appearances http://www.flickr.com/photos/ameliaps/2041678983/ 20/01/2015 14 Identifying Social Differences • Different ages http://www.libertypark.org/images/children%20pics...awana%20001.jpg http://image5.poco.cn/mypoco/myphoto/20080525/07/42878268200805250735083236968337546_001.jpg 20/01/2015 15 Identifying Social Differences • Different Occupations http://i0.sinaimg.cn/dy/c/p/2008-10-26/1225022243_IKRzI2.jpg http://www.vtnews.vt.edu/images/chef2.jpg 20/01/2015 16 Identifying Social Differences • Different life stages http://www.br.psu.edu/Images/BR/Graduateion_008_cropped_rdax_300x195_90.jpg http://images1.fanpop.com/images/photos/1500000/Naley-Wedding-one-tree-hill-1514617-800-533.jpg 20/01/2015 17 Identifying Social Differences • Different life styles http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~karthik/pics/2004-06-1-Kerala/web/640-480/dscf0051.jpg http://hk.image.search.yahoo.com/search/images?p=house&js=1&ni=21&ei=utf-8&y=%E6%90%9C%E5%B0%8B&fr=FP-tab-imgt&xargs=0&pstart=1&merge=2&b=22 20/01/2015 18 Identifying Social Differences • Different housing arrangements http://frontpage.montclair.edu/alvaresj/housejuly2004/HOUSE_0912.JPG http://www.casafree.com/modules/xcgal/albums/userpics/11635/normal_tree_house.jpg 20/01/2015 19 Identifying Social Differences • Different skin colors http://www.thehandstand.org/archive/july2005/articles/images/children.jpg http://drjerrybrown.typepad.com/quotes/images/children_on_beach_1.jpg 20/01/2015 20 Identifying Social Differences Other examples • Sex • Income • Wealth • Religion • Language • Marital status • Education 20/01/2015 • • • • • • • Abilities Sexual orientation Health status Ethnic origin IT skill Bank accounts Etc…. 21 Social Differences • Societies are made up of individuals who have common characteristics with some and differences from others. • People are divided into groups basis on their common characteristics. • Membership of different social groups does not necessarily have impact on one’s life chances. • Social differences – a more neutral descriptor which does not imply a hierarchical, value-laden division.’ (Braham and Janes, 2002, p.xiii) 20/01/2015 22 Social Divisions as a Way of Social Organization • ‘Social Divisions refer to substantial, entrenched and patterned differences between people that run through a society and which influence their present and future of prospects—life chances.’ (Braham & Janes 2002, p.xiii) • ‘Social Divisions are sets of categories. Social categories are not simply given, they have to be established and maintained and the process through which they appear is known as social divisions.’ (Best 2005, pp.8-9) 20/01/2015 “BOTH the outcome & process” 23 20/01/2015 24 20/01/2015 25 Social Divisions as a Way of Social Organization (社會分化) Nine Core Features: (Payne, 2006, p.348) 1. A principle of social organization resulting in a society-wide distinction between two or more logically interrelated categories of people, socially sanctioned as substantially different from one another in material and cultural ways. 2. Although not permanently established in a given form, a social division tends to be long-lasting and is sustained by dominant cultural beliefs, the organization of social institutions and the situational interaction of individuals. 3. Membership of a category in a social division confers unequal opportunities of access to desirable ‘resources’ and therefore different life chances and lifestyles 20/01/2015 26 Social Divisions as a Way of Social Organization 4. A social division is socially constructed, not a simple manifestation of ‘natural’ or ‘inevitable’ laws of existence. 5. The extent of differentiation between categories varies from social division to social division, but movement across a divide is either rare or relatively slow to be achieved. 6. A social division tends to produce shared social identities for people in the same category. 20/01/2015 27 Social Divisions as a Way of Social Organization 7. The principle of social divisions is a universal feature of human societies; “no matter how people who are disadvantaged by specific divisions oppose to such treatments”. (modified from Payne) 8. Each social division encompasses all members of society in one or other of its categories, but individuals seldom have matching profiles of category membership across a range of social divisions. 9. An examination of life chances and lifestyles is an empirical method of identifying social divisions and categories. 20/01/2015 28 Social Divisions as a Perspective • It offers a way of thinking about society as consisting of intelligible components. (Payne, 2006, p.7) • It offers a framework to study the dynamic relationship among social divisions and their effects on individuals. • It offers a framework to study social divisions as a global phenomenon and their significance in different cultural, political and economic contexts. 20/01/2015 29 We invite you to examine what you see carefully and critically… 20/01/2015 30 We invite you to examine what you see carefully and critically… 20/01/2015 31 We invite you to examine what you see carefully and critically… 20/01/2015 32 We invite you to examine what you see carefully and critically… 20/01/2015 33 Some Final Remarks • There could be different ways of seeing and understanding things. • Societies are dynamic and ever-changing. • In a sociological view, social relationships, social positions do not exist as natural or inevitable • Social relationships are closely related to distribution of chances. 20/01/2015 power, resources and life 34 ...
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