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Birth of Modern Nation State & Colonial Experience (Late Chosŏn& leading to the colonial era) Week 4: Feb 13 2NDSEMESTER 2015 1
Recap from last week…•KoryŏDynasty: 918-1392 •Capital: Kaesŏng•Buddhism, lavish culture •Chosŏn Dynasty: 1392-1910 (abt 500 years) •sometimes referred as Yi Dynasty •Rather smooth transition from Koryŏ•Capital moved to Seoul •Invention of vernacular Han’gŭl, 15thC •Centralized bureaucratic society based on (Neo) Confucian ideology ChosŏnSocial Structure Yangmin –good people •Yangban (sadaebu) •Commoner •Chungin: technocrats, lower-grade civil servants •Sangmin: farmers, merchants, artisans Ch’ŏnmin–base people/low-born ppl •Some had independent household like peasants •Travelling troupes, butchers, slaves, kisaeng, etc Last Week’s Quiz2
This week’s issues:•Fall of Chosŏn& Birth of Modern Nation State •falling of Late Chosŏnsystem & rise of popular movements & new educated elites (different from yanban, the new Western Learning) •Leads to the birth of modern nation state but maybe too late? •Big powers fights in Korean peninsula: never experienced it before •Western Learning & the rise of nationalism (Korean nation, minjok) •Woman’s role in the age of Enlightenment3
Failure of the Chosŏnsystem? •No single element to be blamed for the country’s mistakes and misguided decisions •“speculative history”•*Two parts story: •1) Politics: international & domestic changes •2) intellectual transformation in Korea: changes in ppl’sworld view . Ex. Reform movement & post-1910’s independent (nationalism) movement 4
Things to consider •Decline of the old regime & rise of the new nation-state 5
1876 Kanghwa Treaty •btw ChosŏnDynasty and Meiji Empire of Japan •First imposed treaty btw Korea & foreign power •Opens treaty-ports to international trade and settlement •Foreign diplomatic compounds in Seoul •new intellectual and cultural influences •Capitalist market penetration of the Korean peninsula •rice trade •Inexpensive machine-produced house-hold goods: the destruction of handicraft industries by 1920s •Christian missionaries •Churches, hospitals, schools •The first generation of modern Korean intellectual and political leaders 6