8 - WWII, Cold War, McCarthyism - World War II 03/10/2014...

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World War II03/10/2014US emerged out of ww2 in a totally different situation that it entered and totally different position in the world At start of the war still reeling from great depression. It was POOR. Unemployment high At the end of the war, the US was the undisputed powerhouse of the world. Only with nuclear capabilities. WW2 was crucial in reframing many strands ofUS national identity. Esp the idea that US is a land of freedom, prosperity, and tolerance of racial diversity. This self image would be critical inbrining change in the post war period (but it came along with the power and prosperity)What happened was that major powers in Europe and asia essentially destroyed themselves for the second time, the US benefits from thisStarted in two places. Japan in the 30s. started in Europe where Germany was doing the same thing. Both extraordinary brutality 1941 december, pearl harbor. 50mil people killed. 20 mil civilians. 400,000 american soldiers. IMPORTANT difference between American experience and other countries (very low mortality in the US comparatively) I. EconomyThe war was the stimulus that ended the depression!!!FDR called us to become the “arsenal of democracy” How did this happen?oPhysical redistribution of populationMassive. Mostly to west coast 39% growth on west compared to 9% elsewhereAA migration during ww2 dwarfed the “great migration”
Bay areaUnprepared for the 1 mil people who suddenly came Vast temp housing problem. Oakland population grew by 100,000 (1941-1945)Overwhelmed schools, hospitals, police, sewage etc 1943 – chaos, (Richmond 24000  1250000)Kaiser shipyard running 24hrs. massive growth this is the context that you got “rosie the riveter” o19 mil wage earner (women). Only 10% only in industry. Mostly clerical, service, cleaning oat the end of the war, rosie thrown outbut clerical workers stayed°arsenal of democracy was huge success. Driver of economic boom one reason for US powerII. Race (racial limits of new deal) japan and Germany justifying genocide based on racial superiorityUS embarked on campaign to frame diff image of the US because enemies were notoStressed four things to fight forConserted effort to identify americans with this freedomoCliché ww2 movies oA big celebration of this kind of diversity AA could not vote in the south, sharecroppers, would not be hired, unions excluded black workers, army was 1940 was segregatedBlack leaders thought that they could do something about this  march on Washington!
A .African Americans; March on Washington movement Demanding many thingsIdea was that they threatened FDR that there would be this massivemarch down penn ave when the US was saying that they were land of freedom, etc etcoFdr issued an executive order 8802oFEPC (investigate Fairly weakNaacp grew 10xCORE, organized demonstration to desegregate businesses, founded in 1942 o“are you for hitlets way or the American way” using the current climate of America in WW2 for the

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Term
Spring
Professor
FRYDL

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