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Unformatted text preview: HU3910 Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon): 449-1150 Foreign influences: Celtic, Romans, (Angles/Saxons), Vikings Celts moved over from France circa 2500-2300 BC (by conquest theory) circa 4000-3000 BC (by agricultural spread theory) Note: got pushed aside by Anglo-Saxons Angles, Saxons “Zero-Period” contact with Romans on continent, before moving to Britain (from at least the first century BC through 400 AD) see Zero period borrowings (streets, kitchen culture, foods, technology) Romans 55 BC Julius Caesar invades, but leaves 43 AD Claudius succeeds in est. Roman occupation (holds about 300 yrs) limits: Hadrian’s Wall, Wales’ mountains cultural contributions: roads, baths, aqueducts, heating, cuisine (see First Period borrowings via Celts) many Celts were “Romanized” in terms of culture, but kept lang. 410 AD Roman legions withdrawn (pressures from invaders against Roman Empire, from N and E, Goths and Vandals) (476 AD Fall of Roman Empire to Goths) British Celts attacked by Picts and Scots; asked Rome for help (got 1 legion, according to the Venerable Bede’s account in the Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, written about 730 AD) Note: Celts “softened” by years of cultured living, protection by Roman legions. Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians (called, collectively, Angles) 449 AD Invited to help by Celts against Picts and Scots (traditional first date of landing, though probably earlier too) first subdued or pushed back Scots and Picts, then decided to settle by 700 AD, controlled most of England (but not Wales, Cornwall, or northern Scotland) NOTE: very limited borrowings from Celts into English See: Map of Jutes, Angles, Saxons, from Denmark, Germany, Holland; settled in areas of Kent (Jutes); Wessex, Sussex, Essex (Saxons); East Anglia, Mercia (Angles); “Northhumbrians” north of Humber R. Consolidated several kingdoms into “Heptarchy” Kent East Anglia Essex Mercia Sussex Northumbria Wessex Kent: first center of culture and wealth, 6th C., Etherbert Christianized. Christianity comes to Br. Isles in 597 AD w/ St. Augustine 601: Augustine first Archbishop of Canterbury Northumbria, center of culture, wealth, power 7th & 8th c....
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