3910MidEng - HU3910 Middle English Norman...

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HU3910 Middle English Norman Invasion/Occupation (1066) Who were Normans? Scandinavians (circa 900), invaded/settled Normandy assimilated to French culture and language lead by William, Duke of Normandy English situation (circa 1066) Edward the Confessor dies childless no clear line to throne claim by Harold, son of Godwin, earl of W. Saxon kingdom - supported by English nobility competing claim by William - 2nd cousin to Edward - kingdom promised by Edward (under duress?) Harold assumes throne, but has to fight off King of Norway up N. H. races south, tired, caught off guard by W. Battle of Hastings: H takes arrow to eye? William defeats Harold battles wipe out much of English nobility, replaced by Normans same with higher reaches of church: archbishops, bishops, abbots Governing class: Norman French Lower class: English (200 years) W. controls from Scotland to Maine in France 1087 William’s sons partition lands
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2 eldest takes French lands younger takes English lands Role of intermarriage few nobles in countryside (they may still import French wives) but their soldiers often intermarry surrounded by English speakers, nanny? children learn both languages 1100-1135 Henry I consolidates England and Normandy again (1135-1154 Stephen) 1154-1189 Henry II acquires more of W. France through marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine (down to Spanish border) Attitudes of court toward language(s) English is inferior French is lingua franca among traveling class Difficulty in kings learning English Marriage for consolidation of Kingdom (hence overseas) Literature from French (church and universities still use Latin, lingua franca of Europe) BUT: fusion among common people middle class: burgesses (bourgeoisie) by 1250 will need manual to learn Fr. (as foreign lang.) 1154 Abandonment of Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
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3 1167 Closure of U. of Paris to English students; dev. of Oxford U. Re-establishment of English (1200-1500) 1204 King John loses Normandy to Prince Philip Nobility forced to choose between Eng. and Fr. allegiance/lands
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course HU 3910 taught by Professor Bergvall during the Spring '08 term at Michigan Technological University.

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3910MidEng - HU3910 Middle English Norman...

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