History of the British Empire Notes 2

History of the British Empire Notes 2 - Post mutiny o 1858...

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Post mutiny o 1858 – British government takes over from East India Company Restrictions on missionaries No more annexations Reworking of the Indian army Material improvement (railroads, communications) Indians were merely exporters of raw materials and new commodities o The money drain Home charges – tax land and salt Cost of wars Pensions for officials Guaranteed 6% interest on the railroads Devaluation of the rupee Per capita income in 1900 – 2.5 pounds compared to 52 in Britain o Insistence on Smithian/Malthusian and traditional liberal economics leads to famines (1874, 77-79, 98) in which together over 35 million people died while exporting grain from India First famines under rule of Lytton o Sir Richard Temple creates Temple Wage Rationed less than Nazi death camps (1600 calories a day), heavy labor Criticized public health officials who complained as irresponsibility ‘everything must be subordinated…to the financial consideration of disbursing the smallest sum of money consistent with the preservation of human life’ o Anti-Charitable Contributions Act of 1877 – prevented aid to starving because it would interfere with the market (Malthusian ideas) o Lord Cromer defending the actions ‘Every benevolent attempt made to mitigate the effect of famine and defective sanitation serves but to enhance the evils resulting from overpopulation’ 1879 Famine report ‘the doctrine that in time of famine the poor are entitle to demand relief…would probably lead to the doctrine that they are entitled to contemplate without serious apprehension’ Salisbury protests idea that ‘a rich Britain should consent to penalize her trade for the sake of a poor India.’ o Follow on effects are cholera, locusts, malaria, and a crime wave o Refused to allow any reduction in taxes and in fact raised them – taxes on salt raised 20 times o At least ½ million ‘coolies’ recruited at slave wages during this era just
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History of the British Empire Notes 2 - Post mutiny o 1858...

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