History Notes

History Notes - History Notes • Indian Peoples under...

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Unformatted text preview: History Notes • Indian Peoples under siege o 1865 – 360,000 Native Americans – Great Plains Adapted, used horses and rifles Migrated westward Traded with inhabitants of Mexico o 1830’s and 40’s – US government created “Indian Territory” (reservation system) Traditional enemies were forced to live together Indian Bureau officials were corrupt Buffalo population declined (over hunted) • Traditional food and clothing source (shortage) • Trans-continental railroad gave “kill rides” after 1869 completion • Disease increased Led to intertribal conflict and conflict between Natives and American government o November 1864 – Sand Creek Massacre – Colorado CO volunteers vs. Cheyenne Black Kettle brought 800 Cheyenne to fort for protection • CO volunteers killed 132 (mostly women and children) • Scalpings o 1865-67 – Great Sioux War – Wyoming Oglala Sioux (Red Cloud) vs. US Army Forced stalemate and US Army left forts Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) – Sioux could occupy Black Hills 1876 – “Custer’s Last Stand” – Little Bighorn/Greasy Grass • Tribes banded together (Sioux/Cheyenne/Arapaho) • Custer surrounded and wiped out (June 1876) 1877 – US claimed Black Hills – killed Sioux leader Crazy Horse Apache – SW – Geronimo – joined by Kiowa and Comanche • Red River Wars – 1874-75 Discovery of gold caused many Indian wars o Nez Perce – Pacific NW – Chief Joseph – 1877 Seeked sanctuary in Canada (1400 mile trek) 750 vs. 2000 US troops Trapped 30 miles from border, surrounded and sent to Oklahoma Chief Joseph plea – told one thing, US did another, NA had been peaceful Land – imminent domain, held in trust, mobility decreased, gratitude increased Citizenship – “civilized life” • The Internal Empire o Manifest Destiny – mission on the wilderness o Mining towns – Bonanza Kings brought land claims and machinery, hired the workers (miners, engineers) Men outnumbered women 10 to 1 Town center – saloon o Rachel Haskell – cleaned, cooked, read – content Male help in domestic space o Work – dangerous – 1/30 injured – 1/80 died Miners organized – 1892 – Western Federation of Miners o Environmental impact – clogged rivers, deforestation, sulfur o Mormon settlements – 1830’s – New York west to Illinois – led by Joseph Smith Joseph Smith murdered Polygamy Common property ownership Brigham Young led them to Utah – 1840’s 1846 – Utah entered Union o Borderlands – Texas/Mexico – interactive zone Anglo/Mexicano lead disputes Catholic Church Jennings – raids – rumors – Mexican government sponsored groups, Anglo posses – vengeance • Cattle Industry – by 1865 – 5 million longhorns o Led to the rise of the cowboy Anglo, Native-American, Mexican, African American o Drove from borderlands along the Chishem Trail to Chicago...
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History Notes - History Notes • Indian Peoples under...

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