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Unformatted text preview: History Notes Indian Peoples under siege o 1865 360,000 Native Americans Great Plains Adapted, used horses and rifles Migrated westward Traded with inhabitants of Mexico o 1830s and 40s US government created Indian Territory (reservation system) Traditional enemies were forced to live together Indian Bureau officials were corrupt Buffalo population declined (over hunted) Traditional food and clothing source (shortage) Trans-continental railroad gave kill rides after 1869 completion Disease increased Led to intertribal conflict and conflict between Natives and American government o November 1864 Sand Creek Massacre Colorado CO volunteers vs. Cheyenne Black Kettle brought 800 Cheyenne to fort for protection CO volunteers killed 132 (mostly women and children) Scalpings o 1865-67 Great Sioux War Wyoming Oglala Sioux (Red Cloud) vs. US Army Forced stalemate and US Army left forts Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) Sioux could occupy Black Hills 1876 Custers Last Stand Little Bighorn/Greasy Grass Tribes banded together (Sioux/Cheyenne/Arapaho) Custer surrounded and wiped out (June 1876) 1877 US claimed Black Hills killed Sioux leader Crazy Horse Apache SW Geronimo joined by Kiowa and Comanche Red River Wars 1874-75 Discovery of gold caused many Indian wars o Nez Perce Pacific NW Chief Joseph 1877 Seeked sanctuary in Canada (1400 mile trek) 750 vs. 2000 US troops Trapped 30 miles from border, surrounded and sent to Oklahoma Chief Joseph plea told one thing, US did another, NA had been peaceful Land imminent domain, held in trust, mobility decreased, gratitude increased Citizenship civilized life The Internal Empire o Manifest Destiny mission on the wilderness o Mining towns Bonanza Kings brought land claims and machinery, hired the workers (miners, engineers) Men outnumbered women 10 to 1 Town center saloon o Rachel Haskell cleaned, cooked, read content Male help in domestic space o Work dangerous 1/30 injured 1/80 died Miners organized 1892 Western Federation of Miners o Environmental impact clogged rivers, deforestation, sulfur o Mormon settlements 1830s New York west to Illinois led by Joseph Smith Joseph Smith murdered Polygamy Common property ownership Brigham Young led them to Utah 1840s 1846 Utah entered Union o Borderlands Texas/Mexico interactive zone Anglo/Mexicano lead disputes Catholic Church Jennings raids rumors Mexican government sponsored groups, Anglo posses vengeance Cattle Industry by 1865 5 million longhorns o Led to the rise of the cowboy Anglo, Native-American, Mexican, African American o Drove from borderlands along the Chishem Trail to Chicago...
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