MIDDLE EAST EXCEPTIONAUSM
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Southern and Eastern Europe',
International Social ScienceJournal,
Legassick, M. (985) 'South Africa in crisis: what route to democracy?',
Lemarchand, R. (994) 'Managing transitional anarchies: Rwanda, Burundi and
South Africa in comparative perspective',
Journal ofModern African Studies,
vo1.32, no.4, pp.581--604.
Lewis, S. (990)
The Economics ofApartheid,
New York, Council of Foreign
Lodge, T. (996) 'South Africa: democracy and development in a post-
apartheid society' in Leftwich,
Democracy and Development: Theory
Cambridge, Polity Press.
Lodge, T. and Nasson, B. (991)
All, Here, and Now: Black Politics in South
Africa in the 1980s,
London, Hurst and Co.
and Wall, B. (980)
Organise or Starve! The History ofthe South
African Congress of Trade Unions,
London, Lawrence and Wishart.
Mandela, N. (994)
Long Walk to Freedom,
London, Little, Brown.
Manzo, KA. (992)
Domination, Resistance and Social Change in South
O'Donnell, G., Schmitter, P. and Whitehead, 1. (988)
Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies,
Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ottaway, M. (993)
South Africa: the Stntggle for a New Order,
Price, R.M. (994)
'South Africa, the Political Economy of Growth and
in Stedman, S.]. (ed.).
Przeworski, A. (991)
Democracy and the Market,
Rueschemeyer, D., Stephens, E. and Stephens,). (992)
Cambridge, Polity Press.
Shain, Y. and Linz, J. (995)
Between States: Interim Governments and
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
(993) 'Democratic innovation: South Africa in comparative
Shin, Doh Chull (994) 'On the Third Wave of democratization',
Simons, H.). and Simons, R.E. (969)
Class and Colour in South Africa, 1850-
Sisk, T.D. (994) 'Perspectives on South Africa's transition: implications for
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South Africa, RP 32 (979)
Report ofthe Commission ofInquiry into Legislation
affecting the Utilization ofManpower,
South Africa, RP 47 (979)
Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Labour
South Africa, UG 62 (951)
Report of the Industrial Legislation Commission,
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the Political Economy of
Boulder, Lynne Rienner.
As the Introduction to Part IV has already suggested, the range of countries
comprisingthe Middle East is to some-extent a matter ofconvention and there
is considerable unevenness among the countries of the region, however
defined. Here I concentrate on the Arab East (Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon,
Syria and Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States, i.e. Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar