The Russian Revolution
Lenin’s version of Marxism
-Marx did not have in mind a highly agricultural society like Russia, he had in mind a highly
industrialized society, but Lenin wanted to make it work for Russia and wasn’t willing to wait for history
to take its course.
-it is the belief in the necessity of a violent overthrow of capitalism through communist
revolution, to be followed by a dictatorship of the proletariat as the first stage of moving towards
communism, and the need for a vanguard party to lead the proletariat in this effort.
Stages of the Revolution
-The Russian Revolution was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination
of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government ruled by Duma, resulted in the
establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. This eventually led to the
establishment of the Soviet Union.
-The revolution was divided into two distinct phases, the February Revolution, and the October
Revolution. February Revolution displaced the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the last effective
Tsar of Russia and sought to establish in its place a liberal republic.
-the October Revolution, in which the Bolshevik party and the workers Soviets,
led by Lenin,
overthrew the provisional government. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and St.
Petersburg, there was also a broadly based movement in the rural areas as peasants seized and
European Imperialism, Congo
-The Berlin Conference (1884-85)
-regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period.
Called for by Bismark, the first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin
Conference, is often seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa.
-Divide up the continent and disperse the access to resources for exploitation. This was
Leopold’s endeavor NOT Belguim, Congo became his own personal property.
-Belgium’s acquisition of Congo
-King Leopold II gave up control of his personal property, Congo, mainly due to international
outrage over the brutality of his reign.
-When the Belgian Government took over the Congolese Administration from King Leopold II,
the situation in the Congo improved dramatically. Economic and Social changes transformed the Congo
into a “model colony”.
-Leopold believed that overseas colonies were the key to a country’s greatness, and he worked
tirelessly to acquire colonial territory for Belgium. Netiher the Belgian people nor the Belgian
government were interested, but Leopold eventually began trying to acquire a colony in his private
capacity as an ordinary citizen.
-Much diplomatic maneuvering resulted in the Berlin Conference of 1884-85, at which
representatives of thirteen European countries and the US recognized Leopold as sovereign of most of the
area he had laid claim to.
-Reports of outrageous exploitation and widespread human rights abuses led to an international