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PCB 3703C 5- Atoms, Ions and chemical composition of the body Anh Bui.docx

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Water is the major constituent of the body and accounts for 65% to 75% of the totalweight of an average adult.Of this amount, two-third is contained within the body cells, or in the intracellularcompartment; the remainder is contained in the extracellular compartment, a term thatrefers to the blood and tissue fluids.Dissolved in this water are many:Organic molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.Inorganic molecules and ions such as atoms.ATOMSIs the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element.Cannot be cut into smaller particles, the atoms of modern parlance are composedof subatomic particles.Electrons:Which have a negative charge, a size which is so small as to becurrently unmeasurable.Protons:Which have a positive charge, and are about 1836 times more massivethan electrons.Neutrons:Which have no charge, and are the same size as protons. Protons andneutrons make up a dense, massive atomic nucleus, and are collectively callednucleons. The electrons form the much larger electron cloud surrounding thenucleus.Atomic Mass:The sum of the proton and neutrons in an atom is equal to theatomic mass of the atom.Proton+NeutronAtomic Number:The number of protons in an atom is given as is atomicnumber.Ex. Carbon has 6 protons and thus has an atomic number of 6.Isotopes:If an element has nuclei with the same number of protons (the same
atomic number) but different numbers of neutrons.Therefore, isotopes have different mass numbers, which give the totalnumber of nucleons-the number of protons plus neutrons.Chemical Bonding:Chemical compounds are formed by the joining of 2 or moreatoms.Covalent Bond:Bond in which one or more pairs of electrons aresharedby twoatoms.Ionic Bond:Bond inwhich one or more electrons from one atom are removedand attached to another atom,resulting in positive and negative ions which attracteach other.Other types of bond includehydrogen bonding.ACIDSAcids are ionic compounds (a compound with a positive or negative charge) thatbreak apart in water to form a hydrogen ion (H+)The strength of an acid is based on the concentration of H+ ions in the solution.The more H+ the stronger the acid.Example: HCI (Hydrochloric Acid) in waterCharacteristics of AcidsAcids taste sour
Acids react strongly with metals (Zn+HCI)Strong Acids are dangerous and can burn your skinExamples. Vinegar, Stomach Acid (HCI), Citrus FruitsBASESBases are ionic compounds that break apart to form a negatively chargedhydroxide ion (OH-) in water.The strength of a base is determined by the concentration of Hydroxide ions(OH-).The greater the concentration of OH- ions the stronger the base.Example.NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide-a strong base) in water.

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Term
Spring
Professor
MORGAN

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