Topic 2 - Molecular Biology - Topic 2 Molecular Biology Soniya Nahata 6th September 2015 Dr Helness Biology(SL Topic 2 Molecular Biology Soniya Nahata

Topic 2 - Molecular Biology - Topic 2 Molecular Biology...

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Topic 2: Molecular Biology Soniya Nahata 6 th September 2015 Dr. Helness Biology (SL)
06/09/15 Topic 2: Molecular Biology Soniya Nahata IB Biology (SL) 1 2.1 Molecules to metabolism: Essential Idea: Living organisms control their composition by a complex web of chemical reactions. Understandings: U1. Molecular biology explains living processes in terms of the chemical substances involved: U2. Carbon atoms can form four covalent bonds allowing a diversity of stable compounds to exist: U3. Life is based in carbon compounds including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids: U4. Metabolism is a web of all enzyme-catalysed reactions in a cell or organism: U5. Anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules including the formation of macromolecules from monomers by condensation reactions: U6. Catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules including the hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers: Applications: A1. Urea as an example of a compound that is produced by living organisms but can also be artificially synthesised: Skills: S1. Drawing molecular diagrams of glucose, ribose, a saturated fatty acid ad a generalised amino acid: S2. Identification of biochemicals such as sugars, lipids or amino acids from molecular diagrams. 2.2 Water: Essential Idea: Water is the medium of life. Understandings: U1. Water molecules are polar and hydrogen bonds form between them: U2. Hydrogen bonding and dipolarity explain the cohesive, adhesive, thermal and solvent properties of water: U3. Substances can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic.
06/09/15 Topic 2: Molecular Biology Soniya Nahata IB Biology (SL) 2 Applications: A1. Comparison of the thermal properties of water with those of methane: A2. Use of water as a coolant in sweat: A3. Modes of transport of glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, fats, oxygen and sodium chloride in blood in relation to their solubility in water: 2.3 Carbohydrates and Lipids: Essential Idea: Compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are used to supply and store energy. Understandings: U1. Monosaccharide monomers are linked together by condensation reactions to form disaccharides and polysaccharide polymers: U2. Fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated: U3. Unsaturated fatty acids can be cis or trans isomers: U4. Triglycerides are forms by condensation from three fatty acids and one glycerol: Applications: A1. Structure and function of cellulose and starch in plants and glycogen in humans: A2. Scientific evidence for health risks of trans fats and saturated fatty acids: A3. Lipids are more suitable for long-term energy storage in humans than carbohydrates: A4. Evaluation of evidence and methods used to obtain the evidence for health claims made about lipids: Skills: S1. Use of molecular visualisation software to compare cellulose, starch and glycogen: S2. Determination of body mass index by calculation or use of a nomogram: 2.4 Proteins: Essential Idea: Proteins have a very wide range of function in living organisms.

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