GROUP_12_OB_RESEARCH_PAPER_wMatrix - Contents 1.0...

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Contents 1.0 Introduction 3 1.1 Background 3 1.2 Research Objectives 4 1.3 Research Question 4 1.4 Significance of Study 5 2.0 Literature Review 5 2.1 Meaning of Sexual Harassment 5 2.2 Types of Sexual Harassment 7 2.2.1 Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment 7 2.2.2 Hostile Environment Sexual Harassment 7 2.2.3 Third-party Sexual Harassment 8 2.2.4 Non-Direct Sexual Harassment 8 2.3 Causes of S exual Harassment 8 2.3.1 Lack of Confidence 9 2.3.2 Fear and power 10 2.3.3 Socialization 10 2.3.4 Immaturity and Desire to Please 10 2.3.5 Lack of Company Policies 11 2.3.6 Poor of Complaints Channels11 2.4 Impacts of Sexual Harassment 11 2.4.1 Impacts on Personnel 11 2.4.2 Impacts on Organisation 12 2.4.3 Impacts on Social Community 13 2.5 Ways of Preventing Sexual Harassment 13 2.5.1 Personal Responsibilities 13 2.5.2 Organisational Responsibilities 14 2.5.3 Government Responsibilities 17 3.0 Conclusion 18 Introduction Background Sexual Harassment is a type of discrimination based on sex. According to Human Rights Commission ( ), defined sexual harassment as: “Sexual harassment is unwelcome sexual behaviour, which could be expected to make a person feel offended, humiliated or intimidated. It can be physical, verbal or written.” This is an issue faced by many workers worldwide. In view of the rising trend of women in the workforce in Malaysia, where almost half of them were economically active by the year 2000, considerable attention from management and policymakers on sexual harassment issues is vital. As such, workers are increasingly exposed to the likelihood of sexual harassment in their workplace. The frequency of occurrences of such incidences has been found to range between 35% and 53% by available local studies (Ng, Zanariah, & Maria, 2003; Marican, 1999; Muzaffar, 1999). Many of us may think that sexual harassment will only happens to women, but this is
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wrong. A survey from Aware, 21% of Male reported having experienced workplace sexual harassment. The survey done by Aware also show that, 54% of respondents experienced some form of workplace sexual harassment, and 79% of them are women. Nowadays sexual harassment issue are increasing and becoming a very serious issue in organization. If the issue not being handle properly, it will bring negative effects to the organization, such as decreasing on job satisfaction, absent from work, and lower employee’s confidence level to the company. Even worst case that a report conducted by “Equal Rights Advocates” shows that sexually harassed women suffer from stress like anxiety, depression, headaches, weight loss or gain and even sexual dysfunctions. Thus, it is important for organization to understand the situations of sexual harassment existed in the workplace, how sexual harassment delivered, what kind of training, policy or action needed to prevent the issue become worst, and the most important is how to handle the sexual harassment cases. Any of this being handle improperly, may cause negative impact to the personnel and also organization.
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