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Unformatted text preview: Habituation= learning that a (new) stimulus does not meaning anything important and does not need to be attended to. It is produced simply by presenting a stimulus over and over again. Pavlovian (Classical) conditioning is learning an association between two stimuli . This is an example of associative learningThe unconditioned stimulus (US) is a stimulus that elicits (triggers) a response unconditionally whenever it is presented, without past training or practice. The response that a US elicits is the unconditioned response (UR) The conditioned stimulus (CS) is an initially neutral stimulus that becomes able to elicit a new response when it reliably predicts a US. The first time it is presented, it elicits an orienting reaction (see above under habituation). By pairing a neutral stimulus with a US, it becomes a CS and becomes able to elicit a new response (or reflex). The conditioned response (CR) is the response that the CS triggers. The capacity of the CS to elicit the CR is conditional upon (depends upon) its association with a US. Pavlovian conditioning associates two stimuli; Instrumental conditioning associates a response with a reinforcing consequence. A conditioned response develops quickly and becomes strong if the CS has high predictive validity, the CS is associated with the UCS on every trial, he delay between CS offset (ending) and US and UCS onset (start) is short (~1 second), the CS and UCS are "related." Instrumental conditioning, like classical (Pavlovian) conditioning, shows discrimination and generalization . In instrumental conditioning, discriminative stimuli serve as signals for when a response will earn a reinforcement and when it won't. More generally, a discrimination has been established when the subject behaves differently in the presence of two different stimuli . Generalization refers to responding to a new stimulus as if it were the same as a previously established positive signal (S+). After they have been established, an instrumental conditioned response (CR) can be weakened or completely suppressed by called extinction. The process parallels extinction in Pavlovian (classical) conditioning . To extinguish an instrumental conditioned response, simply omit the reinforcer that follows the CR. When extinction starts the response strength or rate increases, reflecting frustration from not getting the expected reward. (not getting soda from the soda machine, you get angry) Extinction in Pavlovian Conditioning , The process of extinction decreases and (usually) eliminates a conditioned response. To extinguish eye blinks in response to the tone, tones are presented repeatedly without any following air puff at the eye. With repeated presentation on the tone alone, the eyeblinks to it become weaker and less probable, until puff at the eye....
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course PYSCH 101 taught by Professor Frommer during the Spring '08 term at Indiana.
- Spring '08