US HISTORYCHAPTER 2THE THIRTEEN COLONIES AND THE BRITISH EMPIREStarted with Jamestown 1607Ended with Georgia 173313 colonies total _ each began with “charter” (document granting special privileges) from the monarch.It described relationship between colony and crown.i)CORPORATE COLONY – Jamestown – joint stock company.ii)ROYAL COLONY – Virginia after 1624- under King’s direct authority.iii)PROPRIETARY COLONY- Maryland, Pennsylvania under authority of individuals granted charter by King.BRITAIN brought representative government France, Spain did not. Elections, reps that spoke for property owners. Feelings for independence grew in colonies.A)EARLY ENGLISH SETTLEMENTS – 1600’SEngland ready to colonize, John Cabot had explored land a century earlier.1588 defeat of Spanish Armada Britain huge naval power. Economy was poor and population growing, opportunities in Americas attractive. Used Joint Stock Companies to finance the risky venture,i)JAMESTOWN – Virginia Company Joint stock company. a.Early problems – Made mistakes.Swampy areas, caused dysentery, malaria.Gentlemen, not used to work, refused to hunt and farm.Reliance on trade with American Indians – conflicts arose settlers would starve.JOHN SMITH – forceful leader helped survival.JOHN ROLFE POCOHANTAS – tobacco in demand crop.b.Transition to Royal Colony – Despite Tobacco it was still on verge of collapse. 2000/6000 colonists survived. Unwise financial decisions lead to debt and King James revoked charter. First Royal colony.ii)PLYMOUTH AND MASSACHUSSETTS BAY – Religious motivation. Protestants and protestors of Church of England “Anglican Church” leader was the monarch who had broken from the Pope. Similar rituals. a.John Calvin – Swiss theologian wanted C of E to break completely with Rome.b.Predestination– those saved are selected before birth.c.King James I– threat to authority – arrested and jailed dissenters.iii)PLYMOUTH COLONY – Separatists, church free of royal control. Left to go to Holland known as “PILGRIMS” > Economic hardship and cultural differences
lead them to search for a new home. Chose Virginia Company Colony. 1620 MAYFLOWER. 100 separatists, 65 day voyage landed few 100 miles north of Jamestown. They decided to stay and settle at Plymoutha.Early hardships – Winter, half perished but were helped by native Americans. 1621FIRST thanksgiving. Leaders CAPTAIN MILES STANDISH, GOVERNOR WILLIAM BRADFORD. Colony grew slowly.Fish, fur and lumber.iv)MASSACHUSSETTS BAY COlONY - “Puritans” believed Church of England could be purified. 1625Puritans persecuted by Charles I. gained charter for Massacussetts Bay Companya)JOHN WINTHROP – founded Boston.b)“Great migration” civil war 1630’s in England drove 15,000 more people.