Bio Notes

Bio Notes - CHAPTER 1 1) Biology a) The study of life from...

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Human blood type: A, B, o A co-dominant to B AA, Ao- type A BB, Bo-type B AB- type AB oo- type O Begin to spread apart and split African Replacement Hypothesis Multiregional Hypothesis CHAPTER 1 1) Biology a) The study of life from the microscopic diatoms 5-50 microns in size to the blue whale 90-100 feet and 100-150 tons 2) Characteristics of living organisms a) Structure is complex and organized i) Salt- organized but simple ii) Oceans- complex but unorganized iii) Water flea- complex and organized b) Require materials and energy from environment i) Plants utilize CO 2 and sunlight for sugars ii) Animals eat plants for sugars c) Work to maintain internal conditions i) Organized systems deteriorate ii) Preventing deterioration requires energy iii) Homeostasis - staying the same iv) Homeostasis requires energy v) Homeostasis requires physical repair vi) Food supplies material and energy d) Growth i) Extension of homeostasis ii) Organisms grow in size/mass iii) Must acquire more than needed for homeostasis iv) Genetically programmed (1) Timing (2) Size
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(3) Shape e) Respond to stimuli i) Changes in internal environment (1) Temperature (2) Water level (3) Blood sugar level ii) Changes in external environment (1) Seek food and water (2) Avoid bitterness (3) Plants grow toward light f) Reproduction i) Reproduce themselves in kind ii) Permutation of parents genetics (1) Genetic info stored in DNA (2) Variation (a) Offspring similar to both parents, but differ from either parent (3) Simple code with complex error correction system g) Evolution i) Genetic composition of population changes (1) Differential survival (natural selection) (2) Selects advantageous adaptations ii) The more time, the more change iii) Eventually become more different iv) 3 natural processes drive evolution (1) Genetic variation/ competition (2) Not all survive
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(3) Adaptive characteristics inherited 3) How scientists categorize diversity of life a) 3 domains of living organisms i) Bacteria ii) Archaea iii) Eukarya (1) Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia (2) Eukaryote (a) Single or multi celled (b) Nucleus and other organelles (c) Larger and more complex (3) Prokaryotes (a) Single cell (b) No nucleus or organelles (c) Smaller, less complex (d) Bacteria, archaea CHAPTER 2 1) Earth a) 70%water b) 30 % land 2) Levels of biological organization a) Biosphere b) Ecosystem c) Community d) population –one species e) organism
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f) organ systems g) organ h) tissue i) cellular j) molecular- water, glucose, DNA k) atomic-hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen l) subatomic-proton, neutron, electron 3) physics-matter a) chemistry-compounds i) biology- cellular 4) The Science of biology a) All events can be attributed to natural causes b) Natural laws apply at all places at all times 5) The scientific method a) Observation- something unexpected happens b) Hypothesis- explanation; if/then prediction c) Experiment- controlled test, challenge prediction d) Conclusion- support or doesn’t support hypothesis i) If doesn’t then modify hypothesis
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course BIOL 1001 taught by Professor Minor during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Bio Notes - CHAPTER 1 1) Biology a) The study of life from...

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