Anthropology Test 2 (2)

Anthropology Test 2 (2) - Anthropology Test 2 Book Ch. 6...

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Anthropology Test 2 Book Ch. 6 Subsistence economies- these are economies where most people are largely engaged  in getting food for themselves and their families. Food collection- a food getting strategy that obtains wild plants and animal resources  through gathering, hunting, scavenging, or fishing. - Food collectors are called foragers or hunter- gatherers o They live in marginal areas  deserts, the Arctic, and dense tropical  forests 3 reason we must be cautious in drawing inferences about the past from our observation of  recent and contemporary food:  1. Early foragers lived in almost all types of environments including some very bountiful  ones. Therefore, what we observes among recent and contemporary food collectors,  who generally live in deserts, the Arctic, and tropical forests, may not be comparable  to what would have been observable in most favorable environments in the past. 2. Contemporary foragers are not relics of the past. They have evolved and are still  evolving.  3. Recent and contemporary foragers have been interacting with kinds of societies that  did not exist until 10,000 years ago- agriculturalists, pastoralists, and intrusive,  powerful state societies. Many foraging people increasingly depend on agriculture,  trade, or commercial activities, so what we see recently may be very different from  the past. Australian Aborigines - Richard Gould described the aboriginal people in the 1960s - Before Europeans arrived in Australia, the area was sparsely population-  fewer than one person per 35- 40 square miles. Now there are even fewer  people b/c the aboriginal population was decimated by introduced diseases  and mistreatment after the Europeans arrived. - Most of the Ngatajara aborigines’ diet is plant food The Inuit (Eskimo) - The diet of the Eskimo people, who live year-round in the North American  Arctic, plants are too scarce to be the most important part of their diet. The  Inuit used to depend almost entirely on sea and land mammal and fish.  - Ernest Burch reconstructed to view of the traditional life of the north Alaskan  Inupiaq in the beginning of the 19 th  century.
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- What in Inupiaq collect for food depends mostly on the season, but the critical resources are sea mammal (ranging in size from whales to seals), fish, and caribou or wild reindeer. - The usual technique for hunting sea mammals is to hurl a toggle harpoon into the animal from a kayak. -
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Anthropology Test 2 (2) - Anthropology Test 2 Book Ch. 6...

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