Psychology of Sport

Psychology of Sport - 1 Mark Halma Dr. Sprauge 2/9/08...

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Mark Halma Dr. Sprauge 2/9/08 Psychology of Sport Feedback and Reinforcement The way a coach motivates a player during a game can have great impact on the outcome of the game. Whether it’s rewarding a player with positive feedback or punishing the player for poor results, the reinforcement of ability changes the way a player performs. Legendary behavior theorist B.F. Skinner claims that “teaching rests entirely on the principles of reinforcement”. So many emotions occur during the course of competition and the proper use of feedback can make the difference between a great performance and a poor performance. The internal energy or drive that can affects behavior and impact on how athletes feel, think and interact with others is personal motivation. The idea that reinforcement is a determining factor in an athlete’s ability to reach full potential is an idea that many believe in. Every athlete is different which gives motivation a unique abstract nature that makes it difficult to use properly at all times. Many great coaches have been known as better motivators than coaches. For example, international soccer manager Luiz Scolari is known for getting the most out of his players by finding ways to motivate them. On the other hand, a manger like Sven Goran Eriksson of Sweden chooses to keep more distant between his players and relies on the individual to motivate him or herself. After an athlete continues to achieve success year after year, it becomes more difficult to stay motivated. World class athletes such as Tiger Woods and Roger Federer 1
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have found ways to channel emotion and internal belief very successful. Both athletes have been able to play at near full potential over a long period of time due to their ability to motivate themselves. Motivation is essentially about the direction of effort over a prolonged period of time. Many different approaches have been taken to study motivation. Commonly, the basic principles of positive and negative reinforcement have been tested while the other tests focus on ones ability of self efficacy. One of the most popular and used worldwide experiments to motivation in sport and other achievement is the self determination theory. The theory of self determination is based on the internal motivates or regulation and how they change in terms of the degree of self determination. Self-determination involves the intensity and techniques used to self initiate motivation. From the highest motivated to least motivated the ranges are as follows: intrinsic regulation, integrated
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 540 taught by Professor Sprague during the Spring '08 term at Kentucky.

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Psychology of Sport - 1 Mark Halma Dr. Sprauge 2/9/08...

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