Ethics Transcript.docx - M1 Ethics “ethos” originally means...

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M1Ethics “ethos” originally means custom or characterstudies the rightness or wrongness of a human actionGreek Tradition “good life” (Being Happy)Judeo-Christian righteousness before God; love of God and neighbor (Doingwhat is right)Ethics - theory of right action and the greater goodsystematic study of the underlying principles of moralityMorality - practice, rightness or wrongness of human actiontells us what we ought to do & exhorts us to follow the right wayTerrance McConell (1994) “Morality is characterized as an ‘end-governed rationalenterprise whose object is to equip people with a body of norms that make forpeaceful and collectively satisfying coexistence by facilitating their living togetherand interacting in a way that is productive for the realization of the general benefit”Ethics= science of moralsMorality= practice of ethicsTypes of Ethics1.Normative Ethics(Prescriptive)-Seeks to set norms or standards that regulate right and wrong or good andbad conduct-DO GOOD AT ALL TIMES!2.Metaethics(Descriptive)-Aims to understand the nature and dynamics of ethical principles and theway we learn and acquire moral beliefs-WHAT IS GOOD?3.Applied Ethics-Actual application of ethical or moral theories for the purpose of decidingwhich ethical or moral actions are appropriate in a given situationCasuists- adherents of applied ethics*concerned with individual moral problems such as abortion or euthanasiaand attempt to resolve the conflicting issue surround these particular problemscauists also act on some occasionsin advisory capacitysuch as guising individualson their decisionExample:A police officer shoots a terrorist who is about to blow up a crowded shopping mallMETAETHICS: The act of the police officer is morally wrongNORMATIVE ETHICS: It is the right thing to do in this particular situationCASUISTS: The police officer is just doing his best to fulfill his duty
M2Dilemmais a situation where a person is forced to choose between two or moreconflicting options, neither of which is acceptable.When dilemmas involve human actions which have moral implications they arecalled “ethical or moral dilemmasMoral dilemmasare situations where persons, who are called “moral agents” inethics are forced to choose between two or more conflicting options, neither of whichresolves the situation in a morally acceptable manner.Three conditions that must be present in moral dilemmas:1.The person or the agent of moral action is obliged to make a decision aboutwhich course of action is best2.There must be different courses of action to choose from3.No matter what courses of action is taken some moral principles are alwayscompromisedTypes of Moral Dilemmas1. Epistemic and ontological dilemmas[Epistemic moral dilemmas]There are two or more requirements that conflict with each otherThe moral agent hardly knows which one takes precedence over the otherNotes: the moral agent here does not know which option is morally rightor wrong[Ontological moral dilemmas]There are two or more requirements that conflict with each other, yet neitherof these conflicting moral requirements overrides each otherNeither of the moral requirements is stronger than the other; hence the moralagent can hardly choose between the conflicting moral requirements2. Self-imposed and world-imposed dilemmas[Self-imposed moral dilemma]

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Term
Spring
Professor
Arjay Punongbayan
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