Learning Objectives Chapters 15, 16
1.American Psychiatric Association’s definition of abnormal behavior-
any behavior that
leads to distress (including distress to others), disability (impaired functioning), or an
increased risk of death, pain, or loss of freedom
2.Biopsychosocial Model- abnormal behavior has three major aspects- biological,
psychological, and sociological.
Biological- includes genetic factors (can lead to abnormal brain development,
excesses or deficiencies in the activity of various neurotransmitters or hormones)
Behavior can also be affected by brain damage, infections disease, brain tumors,
poor nutrition, inadequate sleep, and the overuse of drugs, including non
Psychological- includes a person’s vulnerability to stressful events. Ex: people that were
sexually abused in their childhood are more likely to develop psychological problems in
Sociological- people are greatly influenced by how other people act toward them and
what people expect of them. Many people with strange behavior have disordered families
or social networks.
3.What is the DSM-IV
Manual that lists that acceptable labels for all psychological disorders- alcohol
intoxication, exhibitionism, pathological gambling, anorexia, sleepwalking,
4.five dimensions(axes) of the DSM
Axes I disorders- most have their onset during infancy and represent in some way
a deterioration of functioning.
Most common- anxiety disorders, substance-abuse disorders, depression.
ADD and ADHD
Axes II- mental retardation and personality disorders. Difference between axes
one and axes two it that axes II disorders tend to be lifelong where as axes I
represent a deterioration of functioning.
Axes II disorders are generally less spectacular and less likely to be the main
reason someone came to the therapist (that is why they are distinguished in this
manner, so the therapist can accurately diagnose the patient)
Axes III- general medical conditions- lists physical disorders such as diabetes,
head trauma, or cirrhosis. Psychiatrist does not provide treatment for Axess III
disorders but need to know about them because they can influence behavior.