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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Learning Objectives 1. cognition- thinking, gaining knowledge, and dealing with knowledge. 2. Categories- to make reasonable decisions, we have to treat similar objects similarly. A major part of thinking is the formation of categories or concepts. Prototype- familiar or typically examples. We decide whether an object belongs to a category by determining how much it resembles the prototypes of that category. Thinking in categories organizes everything in your head. 3. conceptual network- think of anything. It is impossible to not think about anything else. Birds leads to flight leads to eggs leads to omelet leads to hot sauce. Spreading activation- thinking about one of the concepts shown in this figure will activate, or prime the objects linked to it. Priming studies- 4. Attention- is your tendency to respond to some stimuli more than others at any given time or to remember some more than others. Pre-attentive process- meaning that it stands out immediately; we dont have to shift attention from the object to another. (White bird in group of brown) Attentive process: one that requires searching through the items in a series. (which brown bird in the group is facing right?) 5. Change Blindness- the frequent failure to detect change in parts of a scene. 6. Attending to one stimulus or activity detracts from attention to another. We are not able to plan two actions at once. Attentional blink- during a brief time after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to attend to something else. expertise- completely mastered every aspect of something. It takes about 10 years of concentrated practice to become an expert. (s econd number six) 7. Understand the Problem, Generate one or more hypotheses, test the hypotheses, check the results. 8. Algorithm- is a procedure that always produces a correct solution. They can require a lot of time and computational resources. Computers execute algorithms. Heuristic- are rules of thumb that produce quick solutions at the cost of possible errors. People use heuristics. 9. Inductive reasoning- very specific general. 11235 next # is 8. find the pattern....
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- Winter '08