Animphy_ Lab Report 1_GROUP 9.pdf - DE LA SALLE LIPA...

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DE LA SALLE LIPACollege of Education, Arts and SciencesDepartment of BiologyGraded Task 1Labster: Homeostatic ControlDimaculangan, Maria Patricia | Gayos, Kyla Mae K. | Gonzales, Athina Mari M.Mr. Ermie B. Mariano Jr. Lic.AgrAnimal Physiology, InstructorMarch 25, 2022Q4A
IntroductionIn 1854, Claude Bernard first mentioned the concept of internal environment. Hisideasevolvedupuntilhisdeathin1878.The term was probably taken from acontemporary histologist named Charles Robin who usedmilieu de l’intérieuras asynonym for “the humors”. Bernard initially thought that the internal environment simplypertained to the blood as he understood that there is active blood regulation and itsconstancy is vital in higher animals. Later on, as he discovered the vasomotor nerves,he then realized that constancy might be attained by the vasomotor mechanisms.Additionally, his discovery about the glycogenic mechanism made him realize that itcontrolled the constancy of blood sugar level. In his lifetime, the concept of internalenvironment was not given attention and did not make an impact until 50 years later.Several scientists have argued about the concept. In the 20th century, Bernard's ideasabout the internal environment were given importance and eventually took part in themammalianphysiologyasan evolving concept and a research program. Anotherscientist named Walter B. Cannon took interest in Bernard's ideas in the field ofneurophysiology and psychology at that time and he coined the term “homeostasis”(Gross, 1998).Homeostasisistheabilityofmaintainingastableandconstantinternalenvironment. At many levels, homeostasis is maintained for an organism to survive andhaveitsnormalbodilyfunctions.Asanorganismfacesrapidchangesintheenvironment, it is only necessary to counter the potential danger internal or externalstimuli may bring. There are numerous homeostatic regulation pathways om the humanbody which includes body temperature, blood pH, breathing and gas exchange in the
respiratory system, body water content, body electrolytes content (osmoregulation),blood pressure, calcium levels, feeding and digestion, hormonal regulation, and bloodsugar levels. The homeostatic pathways counter the stimulus when its intensity is higherthan the tolerance threshold value.In this laboratory report, the objectives are to identify the main physiologicalvariables under homeostatic control and be able to explain each, to explain the steps inhomeostasic pathway from stimulus to response, to compare the different types ofnegative feedback loop and to determine the signs of homeostatic disruption anddescribe the underlying mechanism.Materials and MethodsThe simulation used a 3D volunteer virtual test subject named Phineas. Phineaswereexposed to different stimuli to examine and uncover the regulation of bodytemperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar. In each system, the sensor(s), controlcenter, and effector(s) in the homeostatic regulation pathway were identified. With this,Phineas’s body reactions such as temperature, heart rate, and blood glucose level wereobserved and recorded. First, the regulation of temperature was tested by turning off theair conditioner which serves as the stimuli. Second, Phineas performed exercise whichwas categorized into two intensity: medium and high which serves as the stimuli. Duringthe exercise under medium and high intensity, the heart rate and blood pressure

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Term
Winter
Professor
N/A
Tags
Homeostasis, Cybernetics, Positive feedback, body temperature

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