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Chapter 14 Learning Objectives

Chapter 14 Learning Objectives - Chapter 14 Learning...

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Chapter 14 Learning Objectives Social Psychology 1) Social perception and cognition- are the processes we use to gather and remember information about others and to make inferences from that information. It influences out observations, memory, and thinking. Primacy effect- the first information we learn about someone influences us more than later information does. Self- fulfilling prophecies- expectations that change one’s own behavior in such a way as to increase the probability of the predicted event. 2) actor-observer- People are more likely to make internal attributions for other peoples behavior and more likely to make external attributions for their own. Self-serving bias- attributions that we adopt to maximize out failure ex: you blame yourself for good grades (internal attribution), blame a unfair test for your bad grades (external) Self- handicapping- people intentionally put themselves at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for a possible failure. 3) difference between automatic and controlled processes in social cognition? 4) consensus information- (how the person’s behavior compares with others behavior. If someone behaves in a way that you imagine others would behave in the same situation-you are making a external attribution. If the persons behavior seems unusual, you make an internal attribution that could be very untrue of the person, Consistency information- (how the person’s behavior varies from one time to the next) If someone almost always seems friendly, you would make an internal attribution (“a friendly person”) If someone’s friendliness varies, you look for an external attribution, such as an event that elicited a good or bad mood. Distinctiveness- (how the person’s behavior varies from one situation to another.) If my friend is pleasant to most people but consistently unfriendly to one particular person, you assume that person has done something to irritate your friend(external attribution.) 5) stereotype- generalized belief or expectation about a group of people. 6) prejudice- unfavorable attitude toward a group of people. Discrimination- unequal treatment of different groups.
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7) aversion racism vs. old school racism. Old school- decades ago many Americans admitted their prejudices and discriminated openly. Aversion/modern racism- people consciously express the idea that all people are equal, but nevertheless harbor negative feelings or unintentionally discriminate.
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