transition metal 3 - Transition metals have several...

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Transition metals have several characteristics 1. Most have multiple oxidation states 2. Many of their compounds are paramagnetic 3. They have a strong tendency to form complex ions 4. Many of their compounds are coloured
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Coloured Complex Ions The Complex Ions Formed by Cu 2+ , Co 3+ , and Ni 2+
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Colour of some first-row transition metal ions in solution The Sc 3+ and V 5+ ions are colourless From left to right: Ti 3+ Cr 3+ Mn 2+ Fe 3+ Co 2+ Ni 2+ Cu 2+
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Nature of the metal and d orbital occupation _________________________ d orbitals are associated with a lack of colour (Table 2). For a particular metal, the colour produced depends on the number of _______________ (compare Fe 3+ with Fe 2+ ). _________________ produced differently coloured complex ions, even when those ions possess the same electronic configuration (compare Mn 2+ with Fe 3+ )
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none 3d 10 Zn 2+ none 3d 10 Cu + Pale pink 3d 5 Mn 2+ blue 3d 9 Cu 2+ Violet 3d 4 Mn 3+ green 3d 8 Ni 2+ Grey-blue 3d 3 Cr 3+ pink 3d 7 Co 2+ Green 3d 2 V 3+ Pale green 3d 6 Fe 2+ Violet 3d 1 Ti 3+ Pale violet 3d 5 Fe 3+ None 3d 0 Sc 3+ Colour Electronic configuratio n M Colour Electronic configuration M TABLE 2 Electronic configurations and colours of some hydrated ions, [compare M(H 2 O) 6 ] n+ (n=2 or 3).
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Nature of the ligand Complexes undergo substitution reactions in which some or all of the ligands are replaced by different ligands. Aqua-complexes undergo such reactions readily. Altering the ligands around an ion often brings about a marked colour change, e.g. [CuCl 4 ] 2- excess HCl [Cu(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ excess NH 3 [Cu(NH 3 ) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2+ yellow blue deep blue [CoCl 4 ] 2- excess HCl [Co(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ excess NH 3 [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ blue pink red-brown
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Colour of chromium (III) complx ions The green solid CrCl 3 6H 2 O dissolves in water to form a green solution. The green colour is due to [CrCl 2 (H 2 O) 4 ] + (left). A slow exchange of H 2 O molecules for Cl - ions as ligands leads to reddish solution of [Cr(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+ in one or two days (right).
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When cyanide ions are added to a solution of iron (II) sulfate, they replace the H 2 O ligands of the [Fe(H
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transition metal 3 - Transition metals have several...

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