xs96926 - Biological Sciences 103 Name Section 1 Last First...

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Unformatted text preview: Biological Sciences 103 Name Section 1 Last, First MI Instructor: Roy H. Doi Second Midterm November 18, 2003 Be sure to write your name and ID number on the Scantron sheet. Mark Test Form ééAfi’. There are 1 1 pages including this front page. Please count to make sure all pages are present. There are 40 questions. Each question has only one best/complete answer. Each question is worth 5 points. Please mark the Scantron sheet carefully with a #2 pencil. Erase any changes thoroughly. Be sure to turn in this exam along with your Scantron sheet. AG‘o = —nFAE'o AG'o = -RTan'eq AG = AG'o+ RTln[Products]/[Reactants] E 2 Bo + RT/nF x ln[E1ectron Acceptor]/[Electron Donor] Faraday constant, F = 96,500 J/V/mol Gas constant, R = 8.315 J/mol K 25°C 2 298 K Honor Code: My signature below affirms that I wrote this exam in the spirit of the honor system of UC Davis. I neither received nor furnished any "help" during the exam, nor did I use any unauthorized references. Signature 1, , ID# authorize the University to publicly distribute this graded exam (e.g. handed out in class or left in a bin for me to pick up). 1. Select one of the statements below that is not true a. Fatty acids are amphipathic molecules b. Phospholipids are important components of biological membranes c. Fatty acids contain only a long hydrophobic domain (1. Fatty acid derivatives can serve as hormones e. Fatty acids are fuel molecules and are stored as triacylglyerol 2. When triacylglycerols are hydrolyzed by lipase, fatty acids and are produced which can be phosphorylated to form and oxidized to With the use of co-factor glycerol, glyceraldehyde—3-phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, NAD+ . glycerol, L-glycerol—3-phosphate, diydroxyacetone phosphate, FAD . glycerol, glyceraldehyde—3—phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, NADP+ (1. glycerol, L—glycerol 3—phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, NAD+ e. none of the above CUP 3. During transport of fatty acids to the mitochondrial matrix from the cytosol, select one of the following statements that is is not true a. the fatty acids are linked to CoASH with the use of acleoA synthetase and ATP which is hydrolyzed to ADP and Pi. b. fatty acleoA is linked to carnitine to form O—acyl—carnitine by acleoA transferase I which is capable of passing the O—acyl carnitine to the inner face of the inner mitochondrial membrane. c. O—acyl—carnitine can be linked to CoASH by acleoA transferase II to form acleoA within the mitochondrial matrix. (1. the acleoA transferase I is inhibited by malonyl—CoA at the outer face of the inner membrane. e. When O-acyl—carnitine is formed, the fatty acyl—CoA reacts with the hydroxyl group on carnitine. 4. How many ATPs can be derived when a fatty acid with the composition 18:1:A9is hydrolyzed by beta—oxidation to 9 mols of acetyl—CoA? You can ignore the 2 ATPs that are used to synthesize fatty acyl—CoA and just calculate the ATPs derived from the beta oxidation reactions. a. 35 b. 38 c. 40 d. 45 e. 48 5. During beta oxidation of fatty acids, the enzymes carrying out the oxidation steps are a. isocitrate dehydrogenase and B—hydroxyacyl—COA dehydrogenase b. B—hydroxyacyl—COA dehydrogenase and acyl—CoA dehydrogenase c. acyl—CoA dehydrogenase and B-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase d. B-ketoacyl—ACP reductase and malate dehydrogenase e. B—hydroxyacyl—CoA dehydrogenase and acyl—CoA acetyltransferase 6. During beta oxidation of fatty acids, a high level of inhibits B- hydroxyacyl—COA dehydrogenase and high concentrations of acetyl—CoA inhibits a. NADH, acleoA transferase I b. ATP, acleoA synthetase c. NADH, acyl—COA acetyltransferase (thiolase) d. malonyl CoA, thiolase e. NADPH, enoyl—CoA isomerase 7. Malonyl—CoA inhibits , which promotes a. AcleoA transferase I, beta-oxidation b. AcleoA transferase II, beta-oxidation c. AcleoA transferase 1, fatty acid synthesis d. AcleoA transferase II, fatty acid synthesis e. AcleoA synthetase, fatty acid synthesis 8. The first committed step in fatty acid synthesis is catalyzed by the following enzyme. a. beta—ketoacyl~ACP synthase b. beta—ketoacyl—ACP reductase c. beta—hydroxy-ACP dehydratase d. enoyl—ACP reductase e. acetyl—CoA carboxylase 9. During fatty acid synthesis, acetyl—CoA is bound to an —SH group of a residue of , and malonyl-CoA is bound to the —SH group of which is linked to a. cysteine, acetyl—CoA—ACP transacetylase (AT), biotin, acyl carrier protein (ACP) b. lipoatc, malonyl—CoA—ACP transferase (MT), cysteine, B—ketoacyl—ACP synthase (KS) c. methionine, B—ketoacyl—ACP synthase (KS), phosphopantotheine. acyl carrier protein (ACP) d. cysteine, B—ketoacyl—ACP synthase (KS), phosphopantotheine, acyl carrier protein (ACP) c. cysteine, acyl carrier protein (ACP), phosphopantotheine, B—ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KS) 10. Malonyl CoA synthesis in E. coli involves the following reactants and enzymes 11. 12. 14. a. ATP, HCOg', thiamine pyrophosphate, BCCP, pyruvate carboxylase acetyl—CoA b. ATP, HCOg‘, biotin, biotin carboxylase, BCCP, acetyl—CoA, pyruvate carboxylase C. HCOg', ATP, biotin, BCCP, biotin carboxylase, carboxyl transferase, acetyl—CoA d. Biotin, biotin carboxylase, acetyl—CoA, thiamine pyrophosphate, carboxyl transferasse e. HC03-, GTP, biotin, BCCP, biotin carboxylase, carboxyl transferase, acetyl—CoA In the fatty acid synthase reaction, during the condensation step, the gas is formed, next a of the carbonyl group occurs with the use of the co—factor , followed by a step, and then a of a double bond. a. C02, reduction, NADH + H+, dehydration, reduction b. H2, oxidation NADH + H+, hydration, reduction c. C03, reduction, NADPH + H+, dehydration, reduction (1. H2, oxidation, NADPH + H+, hydration, reduction e. C02, reduction, NADPH + H+, hydration, reduction B—oxidation of fatty acids occurs in the and fatty acid synthesis occurs in the . Synthesis of a 16:0 fatty acid requires mols of NADPH + H+ which is derived by the action of the and the pathway. a. mitochondria, cytosol, 14, malic enzyme , pentose phosphate b. mitochondria, cytosol, 16, malic enzyme , glycolytic c. cytosol, mitochondria, 14, malic enzyme , pentose phosphate (1. cytosol, mitochondria, 16, malate dehyrogenase, glycolytoic e. liver, kidney, 12, malate dehydrogenase, pentose phosphate . In the synthesis of a mol of a 16 carbon long fatty acid (16:0), there is formation of mols of malonyl—CoA, the utilization of mols ATP and mols of NADPH and H+, a. 8,7,16 b. 8,8,16 c. 7,9,14 d. 7, 7, 14 e 7,7,16 The main functions of the citrate shuttle during fatty acid synthesis are a. to transport citrate from the mitochondria to the cytosol and create a large NADH pool. b. to transport acetyl-CoA from the mitochondria to the cytosol and create a NADPH pool in the cytosol c. to transport acetyl—CoA from the cytosol to the mitochondria and create a large NADH pool d. to transport citrate to the cytosol and cleave it with citrate lyase to produce oxaloacetate and acetic acid. e. to equalize the acetyl—CoA pool size in the mitochondria and cytosol. 15. When blood glucose is low, glucagons starts a cascade effect in which an inactive kinase is activated by and is inactivated by , thus causing a reduced synthesis of a. CAMP, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, acetylation, acetyl—CoA b. ATP, acyl carrier protein, phosphorylation, malonyl—CoA c. ATP, acetyl—CoA carboxlase, phosphorylation, fatty acids d. CAMP, B—ketoacyl—ACP synthase, acetylation, malonyl—CoA e. CAMP, acetyl—CoA carboxylase, phosphorylation, malonyl—CoA 16. The oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) results in the production of NADPHs when 12 mols of g1ucose—6—phosphate are passed through the PPP. The two oxidative steps are carried out by and by which produce NADPH and and , a. 12, 6-phosphogluconic acid dehydrogenase, glucose—6—phosphate dehydrogenase, ribulose—S—phosphate, and C02. b. 24, glucose-6—phosphate dehydrogenase, 6—phosphogluconic acid dehydrogenase, ribulose—S—phosphate, and C02. C. 12, 6-phosphog1uconic acid dehydrogenase, g1ucose-6—phosphate dehydrogenase, xylulose—S—phosphate, and C02. d. 36, glucose-6—phosphate dehydrogenase, 6—phosphog1uconic acid dehydrogenase, ribosc—S—phosphate, and C02. e. 20, 6—phosphogluconic acid dehydrogenase, glucose—6—phosphate dehydrogenase, ribulose—S—phosphate, and C02. 17. The sugars that have a hydroxyl in the trans position in carbons 3 and 4 are a. fructose, glucose, ribulose . xylulose, ribulose. fructose sedoheptulose, fructose, erythrose . ribose, ribulose, erythrose xylulose, fructose , sedoheptulose {taper l8. Transketolase moves an activated glycoaldehyde, while transaldolase moves an activated dihydroxyacetone. a. True b. False 19. If ribose—S—phosphate is not required for the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids, the non— oxidative products, fructose—6—phosphate and glyceraldehyde—3—phosphate can be used for the following: a. glycolysis b. gluconeogenesis c. fatty acid degradation d. a, b e. a, b, c 20. All of the following compounds are precursors for gluconeogenesis except: a. lactate b. lysine c. alanine d. glycerol e. pyruvate 2|. During the non—oxidative phase of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway, the enzyme that converts and riboseS-P to and glyceraldehyde 3— P transfers a carbon unit called a. ribulose-S—P, fructose—6—P, 2, glycoaldehyde b. xylulose-S—P, sedoheptulose—7—P , 3, dihydroxyacetone c. ribulose-S—P, sedoheptulose—7—P, 2, glycoaldehyde d. xylulose-S—P, sedoheptulose—7—P, 2, glycoaldehyde e. ribulose—S—P, sedoheptulose—7—P, 3, dihydroxyacetone 22. If the transaldolase in the pentose phosphate pathway carried out the following reaction, how many carbons will be in the products? transaldolase Sedoheptulose—7—P + ribose—S—P ——————————————————————————— > X + Y al2+0 b.6+6 c.5+7 d.8+4 e.7+5 23. If there is high energy charge in the cell and there is much glucose—6—P available, the products made by the non—oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway would most likely be directed towards the synthesis of: a. the TCA cycle intermediates b. citrate and ATP c. glucose and glycogen d. acetyl—CoA and fatty acids e. NADH and NADPH 24. The three reactions in glycolysis that have to be overcome in order for gluconeogenesis to occur are catalyzed by the following enzymes. a. hexokinase, glyceraldehyde—3—phosphate, pyruvate kinase b. hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase c. phosphoglycerate kinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase d. glyceraldehyde-3—phosphate, pyruvate kinase, aldolase e. aldolase, hexokinase, pyruvate kinase 25. Glucagon reduces the level of and inhibits a. fructose—o—phosphate, gluconeogenesis b. fructose—o—phosphate, glycolysis c. fructose-2,6—bisphosphate, glycolysis d. fructose—2,6—bisphosphate, gluconeogenesis e. fructose—2,6-bisphosphatase, gluconeogenesis 26. During gluconeogenesis, lactate was converted to which was then converted to phosphoenol pyruvate by the enzyme which required as an energy co—factor. The PEP was then transferred to the where gluconeogenesis could continue. a. oxaloacetate, pyruvate kinase, ATP, cytosol b. malatc, PEP carboxykinase, GTP, cytosol c. oxaloacetate, PEP carboxykinase, GTP, cytosol d. oxaloacetate, malate dehydrogenase, NADPH, mitochondria e. oxaloacetate, PEP carboxykinase, GTP, mitochondria 27. The reducing power in is required during gluconeogenesis and is produced by either the oxidation of lactate to in the or during the oxidation of malate to in the . The reducing power is used in the conversion of to glyceraldehyde—3—P. a. NADH, pyruvate, mitochondria, oxaloacetate, cytosol, 1,3—bisphosphoglycerate b. NADH, pyruvate, cytosol, oxaloacetate, cytosol, 3—phosphoglycerate c. NADPH, pyruvate, cytosol, oxaloacetate, mitochondria, 3—phosphoglycerate d. NADPH, pyruvate, mitochondria, oxaloacetate, cytosol, 1,3—bisphosphoglycerate e. NADH, pyruvate, cytosol, oxaloacetate, cytosol, 1,3—bisphosphoglycerate 28. Fructose—2,6-bisphosphate regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by stimulating and inhibiting and is synthesized from by the enzyme in its form. a. phosphofructokinase 1, fructose—1,6—bisphosphatase, fructose—6—phosphate, phosphofructokinase 2, unphosphorylated b. phosphofructokinase 2, fructose~l,6—bisphosphatase, fructose—6—phosphate. phosphofructokinase l, phosphorylated c. phosphofructokinase 2, fructose—1,6—bisphosphatase, fructose—o—phosphate, phosphofructokinase l, unphosphorylated d. phosphofructokinase 2, fructose— l ,6—bisphosphatase, fructose—6—phosphate, phosphofructokinase 2, phosphorylated e. phosphofructokinase 1, fructose—1,6—bisphosphatase, fructose—6—phosphate, phosphofructokinase 2, phosphorylated 29. Phosphofructokinase 1 is a key enzyme in glycolysis and is a. stimulated by AMP and ADP b. inhibited by ATP and citrate C. stimulated by acetyl—CoA d. a. and C. e. a. and b. 30. During photosynthesis, is the electron donor, is the electron acceptor, and provides the energy. The products are reduced and oxidized donor. a. C02, H20, H2, sunlight, electron b. C02, H20, H2, C02, electron c. C02, H20, sunlight , C02, electron d. H20, C02, carbohydrate, C02, electron 6. H20, C02, sunlight, C02, electron 31 . The following statements concerning photosynthesis (PS) are true except for a. C02 fixation can occur in the absence of light. b. the rate of photosynthesis is proportional to the intensity of light. 0. the light reactions of PS are directly dependent on light energy. d. C02 is reduced to the carbohydrate state during PS. e. Dark reactions can be rate limiting under certain conditions. 32. In the Hill—Bendall Z scheme discussed in class, pick the statement below that is true; a. in the non—cyclic phase, 4 electrons from H20 go from photosystem II (PS II) to photosystem I (PS I) and 4 NADPH are formed. b. in the non—cyclic phase, electrons from H20 go from PS Ito II and then to NADPI. c. when 4 electrons flow from PS II to P700, 4 ATPs are formed and 2 NADPH + 2H+ are formed. d. in the non-cyclic phase, when 4 electrons flow from PS 11 to PSI and to NADP+, 4 ATPs are formed. e. in the non—cyclic phase, electrons from H30 go from PS II to PS I and then to NADP+. 33. In the Hill—Bendall Z scheme discussed in class, pick the statement below that is true; a. in PSI, during the cyclic phase, one ATP is formed for two electrons that pass from ferridoxin to cyt bf complex. b. in PS1, during the cyclic phase, one ATP is formed for each electron that passes from ferridoxin to cyt bf complex. c. in PSI, during the cyclic phase, one NADPH + H+ is formed for each electron that passes from ferridoxin to cyt bf complex. d. in PSI, during the cyclic phase, one ATP and one NADPH + H+ is formed for each electron that passes from ferridoxin to cyt bf complex. e. in PSI, during the cyclic phase, two ATPs are formed for each electron that passes from ferridoxin to cyt bf complex. 34. When PS Imakes, 4 NADPH + 4 HI, photons of light activate P700, and photons of light activate P680 and moles of H20 are split. a. 4,4,4 b. 8,4,2 c. 8, 8, 4 d. 4,8,2 e. 8,8,1 35. When algae were pulse—labeled with 14CC; for 5 seconds, 14C was found initially in the following compound: a. ribulose—S—P b. glyceraldehyde—3—phosphate c. fructose—o—P d. 3 phosphoglyceric acid e. ribulose— l ,5—bisphosphate 36. During the reduction phase of the Calvin cycle or C—3 pathway of photosynthesis, was used to reduce to a. NADPH + H", 1,3 bisphosphoglyceric acid, glyceraldehyde—3-P b. NADPH + H+, 3 phosphoglyceric acid, glyceraldehyde—3—P c. NADH + H", 1,3 bisphosphoglyceric acid, glyceraldehyde-3—P d. NADH + H+, 1,3 bisphosphoglyceric acid. 2 phosphoglyceric acid e. NADPH + H+, 1,3 bisphosphoglyceric acid , glycerol—3—P 37. To obtain a net synthesis of 2 mols of fructose—6—P in the Calvin cycle, mols of C03, mols of ATP, mols of NADPH + H+ and rounds of the Calvin cycle are required. a. l2,24,24.l2 b. 18,36,24,6 c. 24,24,18,18 d. 12,36,18,12 e. 12,36, 24,12 38. During the carboxylation phase in the Calvin cycle, is carboxylated by an enzyme to form two mols of . The 5 carbon C02 acceptor differs from the product of the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway by the presence of a group on carbon a. ribose-l,5—bisphosphate, 3—phosphoglyceric acid, phosphate, one b. ribulose—1,5—bisphosphate, 3—phosphoglyceric acid, phosphate, two c. ribulose-l,S—bisphosphate, 3—phosphoglyceric acid, phosphate, one d. xylulose—l,S—bisphosphate, 3—phosphoglyceric acid, phosphate, one e. ribulose-l,S—bisphosphate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, phosphate, three 39. In a 5 second pulse experiment with 14C03, the sugar cane plant incorporated l4C into three compounds and then at 20 seconds, the 14C appeared in a fourth compound. List these compounds in order of appearance of the 14C. a. malic acid, oxaloacetic acid, glutamic acid, 3—phosphoglyceric acid b. aspartic acid, malic acid , oxaloacetic acid, 3—phosphoglyceric acid c. aspartic acid, fumaric acid , oxaloacetic acid, 2—phosphoglyceric acid d. aspartic acid, malic acid , oxaloacetic acid, 2—phosphoglyceric acid e. aspartic acid, malic acid , fumaric acid, 3—phosphoglyceric acid 10 40. Malic enzyme plays a crucial role in G4 plant photosynthesis by converting to and and producing a co—factor in the cell. a. oxaloacetate, C02, pyruvate, NADH + H+, bundle sheath b. malate, C02, pyruvate, NADPH + H+, mesophyll C. malate, C02, pyruvate, NADPH + H+, bundle sheath d. malate, C02, fumarate, NADPH + H+, bundle sheath e. malate, C02, pyruvate, NADH + H+, mesophyll ll ...
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