lecture 8

lecture 8 - BIS 103 - 08 - Fatty acid synthesis outline...

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BIS 103 - 08 - Fatty acid synthesis outline Malonyl-CoA synthesis by acetyl-CoA carboxylase - page 35 Fatty acid synthase complex - page 35 Acyl carrier protein (ACP) Acetyl-CoA-ACP-transacetylase (AT) Malonyl-CoA-ACP transferase (MT) β -Ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KS) β -Ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KR) β -Hydroxyacyl-ACP dehyratase (HD) Enoyl-ACP reductase (ER) Citrate shuttle - see page 37 Biosynthesis of TAG and glycerophospholipids Control of fatty acid metabolism - see page 38
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High : 190 Low : 40 Mean : 147 Possible : 200 Scantron sheets will be in blue bins next to 126 Briggs Hall Scores for the first midterm
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Steps in fatty acid oxidation A. Triacylglyerol fatty acids + glycerol (cytosol) B. Transport of fatty acids into mitochondrial matrix (3 steps) 1. fatty acid + CoA + ATP fatty acyl-coA + AMP + PPi lipase acyl-CoA synthases (cytosol) 2. Carnitine + fatty acyl-CoA fatty acyl-carnitine (enters matrix) carnitine transferase I 3. Fatty acyl-carnitine + CoA fatty acyl-CoA + carnitine (matrix) carnitine acyl transferase II
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C. β -oxidation (4 steps in the matrix) 1. acyl-CoA dehydrogenase + FAD 2. enoyl-CoA hydratase + H 2 O 3. β -hydroxy-CoA dehydrogenase + NAD + 4. acyl-CoA acetyltransferase (thiolase) + CoA-SH
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Regulation of fatty acid oxidation In liver, fatty acyl-CoAs have two pathways: 1. β -oxidation by mitochondria 2. Conversion to triacylglycerols in the cytosol The pathway taken is dependent on the energy need of the cell and the rate of transfer of fatty-acylCoA into the mitochondria. Once fatty acids are in the mitochondria, they are committed to β -oxidation to acetyl-CoA Enzyme Inhibitor carnitine acyl-CoA transferase I malonyl-CoA (1st intermediate for fatty acid synthesis) β -hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase high [NADH/NAD + ] ratio (product) acyl-CoA acetyl transferase high [acetyl-CoA] (product) (thiolase)
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Diseases of fatty acid oxidation 1. Entry of fatty acids into mitochondria; faulty carnitine transport 2. Faulty β -oxidation cycle 3. Faulty transfer of electrons from β -oxidation cycle to the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETS) Genetic deficiency in the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases : comas, vomiting, lethargy, accumulation of medium chain acyl-CoAs.
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BIS 103 - 08 - Fatty acid synthesis outline Malonyl-CoA synthesis by acetyl-CoA carboxylase - page 35 Fatty acid synthase complex - page 35 Acyl carrier protein (ACP) Acetyl-CoA-ACP-transacetylase (AT) Malonyl-CoA-ACP transferase (MT) β -Ketoacyl-ACP synthase (KS) β -Ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KR) β -Hydroxyacyl-ACP dehyratase (HD) Enoyl-ACP reductase (ER) Citrate shuttle - see page 37 Biosynthesis of TAG and glycerophospholipids Control of fatty acid metabolism - see page 38
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Lipids play a key role in cellular metabolism and structure -cell membranes -pigments (retinal) -co-factors (vitamin K) -detergents (bile salts) -transporters (dolichols) -hormones (vitamin D derivatives and sex hormones) -extracellular and intracellular messengers -anchors for membrane proteins
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Is the synthesis of fatty acids carried out by reversing β -oxidation?
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course BIS 103 taught by Professor Abel during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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lecture 8 - BIS 103 - 08 - Fatty acid synthesis outline...

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