exam3-review-outline

exam3-review-outline - 7.05 Exam 3 review 3/28/2007 EXAM #3...

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7.05 Exam 3 review 3/28/2007 1/10 EXAM #3 REVIEW Karl Gutwin and Simona Tescu General Information: Exam 3 is Wednesday, 3/30 in Walker Memorial. You are allowed to bring your notes and as many hand-written pages as you want. You cannot bring: the book, recitation/review handouts. Everything needs to be hand-written! Exam 3 will cover lectures 20-26. Pentose metabolism is NOT covered in exam 3. Solve many practice problems from previous exams (collected in the review handout)! Outline : Lecture 20: Carbohydrates General formula of a carbohydrate: (CH 2 O) n , where n= 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 The Fisher and Haworth (ring) structures for: o Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Mannose, Ribose, Ribulose, Xylulose (see attached handout) o Aminosugars: glucosamine o Glucuronic acid Dissacharides (see attached handout) o Maltose: α -D-glucopyranosyl (1 4) α (or β ) D-Glucopyranose o Lactose: β -D-Galactopyranosyl (1 4) α (or β ) D-Glucopyranose o Sucrose: α -D-glucopyranosyl (1 2) β− D-fructofuranoside Polysaccharides: o Amylose: α -D-glucospyranosyl units bound 1 4 o Amylopectin: α -D-glucospyranosyl units bound 1 4 (branch points – every 25-30 glucose units) o Glycogen: α -D-glucospyranosyl units bound 1 4 (branch points – every 10-15 glucose units) o Hyaluronic acid o Chitin Few things on how to draw/ name a carbohydrate: o General formula: (CH 2 O) n , n= 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 n=3: triose n=6: hexose o Aldose vs ketose (glucose is an aldose, fructose is a ketose)
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7.05 Exam 3 review 3/28/2007 2/10 o D vs L carbohydrates D-carbohydrates have the OH of the last chiral carbon on the right o 5 vs 6 member rings 5-member ring– furan 6-member ring – pyran o Alpha and beta forms α – OH below the ring β – OH above the ring o How to go from Fischer projection Haworth (ring) projection OH’s to the left in the Fischer projection will end up above the ring OH’s to the right in the Fischer projection will end up below the ring o Reducing (hemiacetal) vs nonreducing (acetal) sugars Termination in -ose – reducing sugar end – pyranose/ furanose Termination in -oside – nonreducing sugar end – pyranoside/ furanoside How to name a disaccharide: α (or β ) --- L (or D) --- sugar name + furanosyl/ pyranosyl --- X>Y (#carbon involved in the intra- saccharides bond) --- sugar name + pyranose/ oside or furanose/ oside
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exam3-review-outline - 7.05 Exam 3 review 3/28/2007 EXAM #3...

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