BIPN 140 Final Notes

BIPN 140 Final Notes - *FIND EQUATION SHEET! BIPN 140 Final...

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********************FIND EQUATION SHEET!!!!!!!!!!!!! BIPN 140 Final Notes 1. Look up figure about cat strabismus FIND EQUATION SHEET!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Divisions of the Brain early in gestation the neural tube becomes subdivided into prosencephalon, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon Spinal cord differentiates from more posterior region of neural tube Forebrain: Prsencephalon Telencephalon (hippocampus), cortex and Diencephalon (thalamus, optics) Hindbrain mesencephalon Midbrain: Rhonobencephalon metencephalon (cerebellum/pons) and myelencephalon (medulla) Mammalian cortex develops in inside out manner Development of Mammalian Cortex Cortex is developed in inside out manner Neuronal migration can be done radially or tangentially Inside out means that the newests cell to migrate forms the deepest layer of cortex and oldest cells end up in most superficial layer Cortical neurons migrate from center outward along radial glia as opposed tangentially (from region to another) Cell Migration Migration is along radial glia (birgman astrocytes) Radial glia cells guide neurons to their final position in the cortex A single neuroblast migrates along a radial glia process Mutations in genes that influence neuronal migration causes maliformations of human cerebral cortex Protein Reelin influences radial neuronal migration in cortex A mutation in DCX gene ventricals become dramatically enlarged making brain look smooth Long Distance Neuronal Migration scientists believe that position is destiny like if a neuron is in thalamus it most likely came from a neural progenitor cell in the embryonic brain region that gave rise to the thalamus However not all neurogenisis is local Came about because neurons found in thalamic nucleus assumed to be derived from diencephalons were actually generated in telencephalon
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Findings showed that adult brain structures might be derived from broad range of embryonic brain subdivisions Noticed a proportion of cells in cerebral cortex migrated in tangential route rather than radially Ventrally derived cells constitute distinct classes of GABAergin interneurons in cortex and olfactory bulb as oligodendroglia in forebrain. A bunch of transcriptional regulators whose expression and activity is restricted to ventral forebrain orchestrates this long distance migration of distinct cell types and when these factors are mutated, migration of cells from ventral forebrain to cortex is diminished and number of GABAergic interneurons is reduced. Locally generated neurons used radial glia migratory route There is variable contribution of radial and tangential migration to assembly of cerebral cortex Migration/Differentiation of Neural Crest Mig/Dif of neural crest relies on regulation of gene expression and cell-cell signaling Cell signaling during migration of neural crest cells influences progenitor identity and terminal differentiation
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BIPN 140 Final Notes - *FIND EQUATION SHEET! BIPN 140 Final...

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