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Unformatted text preview: 1/15/2009 1 Chapter 3: Overview of Cell Biology Cell Diversity Anatomy of the Cell Anatomy of the Cell Almost all cells contain a single nucleus near the center, except for 2 cell types: 1. Skeletal muscle cells have multiple nuclei 2. Mature red blood cells (RBCs) have NO nucleus Cytoplasm: cell organelles + cytosol The Nucleus: Cell’s Control Center 1. Nucleolus: site of ribosome production 2. Chromatin: coiled strands of DNA 3. Nuclear membrane with nuclear pores Cell Organelles (Table 3.1) • Mitochondria : the “Power plants” • Ribosomes : site of protein synthesis • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): network of tubules – Rough ER: has ribosomes – Smooth ER: NO ribosomes • site of fatty acid, phospholipid & steroid synthesis • Golgi apparatus : the “UPS” of the cell – processes, packages & delivers proteins from the rough ER to the plasma membrane 1/15/2009 2 Lysosomes and Peroxisomes Lysosomes : "cellular stomachs" Contain digestive enzymes that break down carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, bacteria & cell debris Autophagy : use of lysosomes to safely recycle cellular structures Autolysis : cell uses lysosomes to digest itself Peroxisomes Vesicles with oxidative enzymes that use O 2 to digest toxic substances such as free radicals & hydrogen peroxide Numerous in the liver where toxic byproducts accumulate Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments throughout the cytoplasm The musculoskeletal system of the cell – Gives the cell its shape Plasma/Cell Membrane A double phospholipid layer (amphipathic) surrounding the cell Semi/Selective permeability, i.e. allows some materials to pass while excluding others Plasma Membrane Proteins (Learn Table 3-2, p. 40) Type of Protein Functions in the Membrane Channels Pores in the membrane Transporters Shuttle substances across the membrane...
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- Spring '08
- cells, red blood cells, Cell nucleus