Chapter 5 Diseases_Pathogenic Organisms

Chapter 5 Diseases_Pathogenic Organisms - Disease Any...

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1 Chapter 5 Disease & Disease-Producing Organisms Disease Any disruption in the structure and/or function of a part, organ or system in the human body Causes may be known or unknown Symptoms may be objective or subjective Severity may be variable Classification of Diseases By Organ or organ system – e.g. heart disease, kidney disease, respiratory infection Causative agent – biological, chemical , and physical agents Type: acute vs. chronic vs. sub-acute diseases By Type of Disease Acute Diseases : Rapid onset, short duration, relatively severe Communicable • common cold, pneumonia, measles, typhoid fever Noncommunicable • appendicitis, poisoning, fire, gunshots Subacute Diseases : Neither severe nor very long-lasting Chronic Diseases: Less sever but continuous or recurring for long periods Communicable • AIDS, TB, syphilis Noncommunicable • diabetes, coronary heart disease, arthritis, liver cirrhosis Causative Agents of Disease Biological Agents Chemical Agents Physical Agents Viruses (e.g. Herpes, AIDS) Pesticides Heat Bacteria (e.g. Salmonellosis ) Food additives UV Light Fungi (e.g. Athlete’s foot) Drugs Radiation Protozoa (e.g. Malaria) Industrial chemicals Noise vibration Nematodes (e.g. Ascaris, elephantiasis) Air pollutants Cigarette smoke Car accidents Categories of Disease Infectious diseases : e.g. colds, AIDS, TB Degenerative diseases : e.g. osteoporosis, arthritis Nutritional disorders : e.g. rickets, nutritional anemias Metabolic disorders : e.g. diabetes Immune disorders : e.g. allergies – autoimmune disorders: e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS) Psychiatric/mental disorders Neoplasms
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2 Risk Factors Modifiable Risky behaviors Living conditions (e.g. crowded housing, poor sanitation) Physical & chemical damage (e.g. exposure to toxic chemcials, pesticides, ionizing radiation….etc.) Nonmodifiable Age; gender; heredity; pre-existing illness Modifiable Risk Factors 1/3 of world's cancers are due to 9 modifiable risk factors 1. Tobacco use (accounts for 21% of all cancer) 2. Alcohol consumption 3. 4. 5. Physical inactivity 6. Unsafe sexual behavior 7. Urban air pollution 8. Indoor smoke from household use of coal 9. Contaminated injection needles Source: Ezzati et al. 2005 Disease Terminology Etiology : cause of a disease Idiopathic : a disease of unknown etiology Therapy : course of treatment Nosocomial : hospital acquired Iatrogenic : due to adverse effects of treatment Diagnostic Terms Diagnosis : a conclusion as to the nature of the illness Prognosis : a prediction of the probable outcome of a disease Symptoms : subjective manifestations of a disease Signs : objective manifestations of a disease Syndrome : a characteristic group of signs & symptoms
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2009 for the course HP 320 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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Chapter 5 Diseases_Pathogenic Organisms - Disease Any...

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