1Chapter 5Disease & Disease-Producing OrganismsDisease•Any disruption in the structure and/or function of a part, organ or system in the human body–Causes may be known or unknown–Symptoms may be objective or subjective–Severity may be variableClassification of DiseasesBy •Organ or organ system –e.g. heart disease, kidney disease, respiratory infection•Causative agent–biological, chemical , and physical agents•Type: acute vs. chronic vs. sub-acute diseasesBy Type of DiseaseAcute Diseases: Rapid onset, short duration, relatively severe–Communicable•common cold, pneumonia, measles, typhoid fever–Noncommunicable•appendicitis, poisoning, fire, gunshotsSubacute Diseases : Between acute & chronicNeither severe nor very long-lastingChronic Diseases: Less sever but continuous or recurring for long periods–Communicable•AIDS, TB, syphilis–Noncommunicable•diabetes, coronary heart disease, arthritis, liver cirrhosisCausative Agents of DiseaseBiological AgentsChemical AgentsPhysical AgentsViruses (e.g. Herpes, AIDS)PesticidesHeatBacteria (e.g. Salmonellosis )Food additivesUV LightFungi (e.g. Athlete’s foot)DrugsRadiationProtozoa (e.g. Malaria)Industrial chemicalsNoise vibrationNematodes (e.g. Ascaris, elephantiasis)Air pollutantsCigarette smokeCar accidentsCategories of Disease•Infectious diseases: e.g. colds, AIDS, TB•Degenerative diseases: e.g. osteoporosis, arthritis•Nutritional disorders: e.g. rickets, nutritional anemias•Metabolic disorders: e.g. diabetes•Immune disorders: e.g. allergies–autoimmune disorders: e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS)•Psychiatric/mental disorders•Neoplasms
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