Chapter 7 Skeleton_SP_09

Chapter 7 Skeleton_SP_09 - Bones of the Skeleton: Study...

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1 Chapter 7: The Skeletal System Bones of the Skeleton: Study Table 7-1 Functions Support Protection of soft organs Movement Storage of minerals Site of blood cell formation The Skeletal System 206 bones in 2 divisions Axial Skeleton 80 bones Skull (cranium + facial bone) Trunk (vertebral column + thorax) Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones Extremities + their attachments Classification of Bones Mostly compact bone Mostly spongy bone Thin compact bone around a layer of spongy bone Gross Anatomy of Long Bone Gross Anatomy of Long Bone Compact bone in the shaft of long bones Spongy bone : more open spaces than compact bone filled with red marrow Periosteum : fibrous connective tissue membrane covers bones (except the joints) perforating fibers secure it to the underlying bone Endosteum : lines the medullary canal contains cells which aid bone growth & repair
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2 Gross Anatomy of Long Bone Diaphysis : shaft of long bone composed of compact bone covered by the periosteum Epiphysis : ends of long bones mostly spongy bone covered by articular cartilage slippery hyaline cartilage decreases friction at joint surfaces Bone Marrow Red marrow Blood cells production site At birth, all bone marrow is red. With age, more & more of it is converted to the yellow type About half of the bone marrow is red Yellow marrow In the central cavities of the long bone Composed largely of fat In cases of severe blood loss, the body can convert yellow marrow back to red marrow to increase blood cell production During starvation, body uses the fat in yellow marrow for energy Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Unit of bone Secure periosteum to underlying bone Carry blood vessels Cavities containing osteocytes Tiny canals Rings around central canal Sites of lacunae Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Osteon (Haversian System) : unit of bone central canal + matrix rings Central (Haversian) canal Perforating (Volkman’s) c anal perpendicular to the central canal Lacunae : cavities containing osteocytes arranged in concentric rings (the lamellae) Lamellae : rings around the central canal; sites of lacunae Canaliculi : tiny canals radiating from the central canal to lacunae forming a transport system Types of Osseous Cells Osteoblasts Bone-building cells Manufacture extracellular matrix Active in embryonic cartilage Osteocytes Mature bone cells Osteoblasts osteocytes, once the matrix has hardened Maintain bone matrix Osteoclasts Bone-breaking cells Develop from monocytes (a WBC)
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This note was uploaded on 02/07/2009 for the course HP 320 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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Chapter 7 Skeleton_SP_09 - Bones of the Skeleton: Study...

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