Synaptic Plasticity II I. Molecular Mechanisms of LTP a. Review b. Recruitment of AMPA receptors c. Role of protein synthesis in LTP II. Silent Synapses a. Historical b. Concept c. Maturation/Potentiation III. Long Term Synaptic Depression (LTD) a. Long lasting reduction of EPSP amplitude i. LTD occurs when Schaffer collaterals are stimulated at low frequencies for long periods of time. b. Cerebellar LTD i. Cerebellar LTD is associative in that it requires both climbing fibers and parallel fibers to be activated as the same time. This is due to two distinct pathways that interact to reduce the AMPA receptors present on the membrane. In the first pathway, glutamate released from the parallel fibers activates AMPA and metabotropic glutamate receptors. AMPA than induces depolarization and the metabotropic glutamate receptors produces the secondary messangers IP 3 and DAG. In the second pathway, the climbing fiber cause an increase in Ca due to the activation of voltage gated channels. The second messengers,
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