History Study Guide - Tiffany Liu Professor Cruz History 10-2:15PM-3:35PM 2 June 2013 History 10 Final Terms\/Concepts-Part 4 Affirmative Action referred

History Study Guide - Tiffany Liu Professor Cruz History...

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Tiffany Liu Professor Cruz History 10-2:15PM-3:35PM 2 June 2013 History 10: Final Terms/Concepts-Part 4 Affirmative Action referred to policies that took factors including race, color, religion, sex, or national origin into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group in areas of employment, education, and business. The term was first used in the United States in Executive Order 10925 and was signed by President John F. Kennedy on 6 March 1961; it was used to promote actions that achieve non-discrimination. In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson enacted Executive Order 11246 which required government employers to take affirmative action to hire without regard to race, religion and national origin. In 1967, gender was added to the anti-discrimination list. Affirmative action was intended to promote the opportunities of defined groups within a society. It was often instituted in government and educational settings to ensure that minority groups within a society were included in all programs. On July 20, 1995, California Gov. Pete Wilson signed an executive order abolishing a wide range of affirmative action programs affecting hiring and contracting in state agencies. Wilson eliminated or sharply cut back scores of affirmative action policies or programs that were not authorized by state or federal laws or that exceed those laws. He also abolished 118 boards and commissions created to direct state agencies on ethnic and gender diversity issues. As a result, a California ballot proposition called prop. 209 was approval in November 1996 and it rewritten the state constitution to prohibit state government institutions from considering race, sex, or ethnicity, specifically in the areas of public employment, public contracting or public education. (Class lecture and video on 5/30/13 and online sources: and and ) Sailor Riots (aka. Zoot Suit Riots) were a series of riots in 1943 during World War II that exploded in Los Angeles, California, between white sailors and Marines stationed throughout the city and Latino youths, who were recognizable by the zoot suits they favored. Although Mexican-American men were active in the military, many European-American servicemen disliked the sight of Latinos socializing in clothing considered extravagant and unpatriotic during wartime. A sailor by the name of D.A.

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