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Lecture 3_Deduction and induction - Lecture 3 Deduction and...

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Lecture 3 Deduction and Induction Patrick Maher Philosophy 102 Spring 2009
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Following with necessity The conclusion of an argument follows necessarily from the premises if it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. Example All saleswomen are extroverts. Janette is a saleswoman. Therefore, Janette is an extrovert. In many arguments the conclusion does not follow necessarily from the premises. Example The vast majority of saleswomen are extroverts. Janette is a saleswoman. Therefore, Janette is an extrovert.
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Deductive and inductive arguments Definition A deductive argument is an argument in which the conclusion is claimed to follow necessarily from the premises. An inductive argument is an argument in which the conclusion is only claimed to be probable given the premises.
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Special indicator words If it is said that the conclusion follows “necessarily”, or “certainly”, or “definitely” from the premises, that suggests the argument is deductive. Example The meerkat is a member of the mongoose family. All members of the mongoose family are carnivores. Therefore, it necessarily follows that the meerkat is a carnivore. If it is said that the premises make the conclusion “probable”, or “likely”, or “reasonable”, that suggests the argument is inductive. Example The meerkat is closely related to the suricat. The suricat thrives on beetle larvae. Therefore, probably the meerkat thrives on beetle larvae.
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Actual inferential relationship If the conclusion actually follows necessarily from the premises, the argument should be considered deductive.
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