Lecture 9_Fallacies of presumption, ambiguity, and grammatical analogy

Lecture 9_Fallacies of presumption, ambiguity, and grammatical analogy

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 9 Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Grammatical Analogy Patrick Maher Philosophy 102 Spring 2009 Fallacies of presumption Definition Fallacies of presumption: The premises presume what they purport to prove. We will cover: Begging the question Complex question False dichotomy Begging the question Definition Begging the question: 1 Tacitly assuming a controversial premise; or 2 Using a premise that is just a disguised restatement of the conclusion. An example of each type 1 The world in which we live displays an amazing degree of organization. Obviously this world was created by an intelligent designer. 2 Capital punishment is justified for the crimes of murder and kidnaping because it is quite legitimate and appropriate that someone be put to death for having committed such hateful and inhumane acts. This is not a fallacy No dogs are cats. Therefore, no cats are dogs. Here the premise is equivalent to the conclusion. But the premise is not a disguised restatement of the conclusion. Complex question Definition Complex question: A question presupposes what the person is trying to prove. Example Have you stopped beating your wife? Whatever answer is given, the arguer concludes that the man has been beating his wife. There are really two questions here: Have you ever beaten your wife?...
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Lecture 9_Fallacies of presumption, ambiguity, and grammatical analogy

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