MCB - lect5 - Lecture 5 (FW) February 4, 2009 Translation,...

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Lecture 5 (FW) February 4, 2009 Translation, tRNA adaptors, and the code Reading .Chapters 8 and 9 Lecture 5. How DNA governs protein synthesis. Primary goal: How does sequence of A,G,T, and C specify the sequence of amino acids in a protein? I. The breaking of the code. Marshall Nirenberg at NIH. A.What triplets of nucleotides actually encode which amino acid. This was discovered by Nirenberg in 1960, and Khorana at MIT. Nirenberg worked with the bacteria, E. coli, and found that he could encourage extracts of bacteria to synthesize protein if one gave it synthetic RNAs. The first synthetic RNA tried was composed of only one nucleotide, U (a relative of T). This made a protein composed only of one animo acid, phenylalanine. Eventually, all 64 combinations were tried. Examine the codon table in the text ( p. 131) B. The genetic code The code is universal The code is redundant. I i.e., there are synonyms. The code has punctuation, i.e., signals for Start and Stop. II. tRNA as the adaptor molecules A. Now it is possible to see how Crick's adaptor hypothesis might work. Each amino acid is attached to an end of an adaptor RNA. This
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2009 for the course MCB 57739 taught by Professor Wilt during the Spring '09 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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MCB - lect5 - Lecture 5 (FW) February 4, 2009 Translation,...

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