ism_chapter_01 - Chapter 1 Systems of Measurement...

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1 Chapter 1 Systems of Measurement Conceptual Problems *1 Determine the Concept The fundamental physical quantities in the SI system include mass, length, and time. Force, being the product of mass and acceleration, is not a fundamental quantity. correct. is ) ( c 2 Picture the Problem We can express and simplify the ratio of m/s to m/s 2 to determine the final units. Express and simplify the ratio of m/s to m/s 2 : s s m s m s m s m 2 2 = = and correct. is ) ( d 3 Determine the Concept Consulting Table 1-1 we note that the prefix giga means 10 9 . correct. is ) ( c 4 Determine the Concept Consulting Table 1-1 we note that the prefix mega means 10 6 . correct. is ) ( d *5 Determine the Concept Consulting Table 1-1 we note that the prefix pico means 10 12 . correct. is ) ( a 6 Determine the Concept Counting from left to right and ignoring zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit, the last significant figure is the first digit that is in doubt. Applyin criterion, the three zeros after the decimal point are not significant figures, but the last zero is significant. Hence, there are four significant figures in this number. correct. is ) ( c
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Chapter 1 2 7 Determine the Concept Counting from left to right, the last significant figure is the first digit that is in doubt. Applying this criterion, there are six significant figures in this number. correct. is ) ( e 8 Determine the Concept The advantage is that the length measure is always with you. The disadvantage is that arm lengths are not uniform; if you wish to purchase a board of two arm lengths it may be longer or shorter than you wish, or else you may have to physically go to the lumberyard to use your own arm as a measure of length. 9 ( a ) True. You cannot add apples to oranges or a length (distance traveled) to a volume (liters of milk). ( b ) False. The distance traveled is the product of speed (length/time) multiplied by the time of travel (time). ( c ) True. Multiplying by any conversion factor is equivalent to multiplying by 1. Doing so does not change the value of a quantity; it changes its units. Estimation and Approximation *10 •• Picture the Problem Because θ is small, we can approximate it by D/r m provided that it is in radian measure. We can solve this relationship for the diameter of the moon. Express the moon’s diameter D in terms of the angle it subtends at the earth and the earth-moon distance r m : m r D = Find in radians: rad 00915 . 0 360 rad 2 524 . 0 = ° × ° = π Substitute and evaluate D : ( )( ) m 10 51 . 3 Mm 384 rad 0.00915 6 × = = D
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Systems of Measurement 3 *11 •• Picture the Problem We’ll assume that the sun is made up entirely of hydrogen. Then we can relate the mass of the sun to the number of hydrogen atoms and the mass of each. Express the mass of the sun M S as the product of the number of hydrogen atoms N H and the mass of each atom M H : H H S M N M = Solve for N H : H S H M M N = Substitute numerical values and evaluate N H : 57 27 30 H 10 19 . 1 kg 10 1.67 kg 10 1.99 × = × × = N 12 •• Picture the Problem Let P
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This homework help was uploaded on 02/26/2008 for the course PHYSICS 11 taught by Professor Licini during the Spring '07 term at Lehigh University .

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ism_chapter_01 - Chapter 1 Systems of Measurement...

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