study guide ch 1 pt 1

study guide ch 1 pt 1 - Professor M. J. Krische Chemistry...

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Professor M. J. Krische Chemistry 318M, Fall 2008 Chapter 1-Study Guide (Part 1 ) I. The Electronic Structure of Organic Molecules (Chapters 1) i. Historical Perspective ii. Lewis Structures iii. Molecular Shape (VSEPR) iv. Resonance Structures v. Atomic Orbitals vi. Molecular Orbitals vii. Hybrid Atomic Orbitals viii. Functional Groups i. Historical Perspective ~ 400 B.C. Democritus: Matter is comprised of indivisible particles termed "atoms". Middle Ages Melting Point, Boiling Point (purification/isolation/characterization). The age of alchemy. (1214-1292) Roger Bacon, an instructor at Oxford University, conducts research using the modern scientific methods of experiment and observation. Bacon represents a vital link from the age of alchemy to the discoveries and enlightenment of the renaissance. (1627-1691) Robert Boyle: Attacked Aristotle’s theory of the four elements. States that an element is a substance that can’t be resolved into simpler substances. Claims must be supported by facts. (1754-1826) Louis Joseph Proust: Proves that in pure compounds the elements are always combined in the same proportions (Berthellot, who neglected to purify his compounds, disagreed). The beginnings of structural hypotheses founded on experimentation. (1743-1794) Antoine Lavoiser: Disproves “phlogiston theory”, i.e. fire does not represent release of phlogiston. (1831) Leibig/Lavoiser: Method for combustion analysis. Empirical formula determination stimulates even more speculation on structure and bonding. (1766-1844) John Dalton: Relationship between atoms/elements. Different elements are composed of different atoms of characteristic weight. Atoms of different elements combine in specific numerical ratios. (1778-1850) Joseph Gay-Lussac: Law of combining volumes. Ratios reflect the existence of atoms/molecules “Hydrogen” (1 volume) + “Chlorine” (1 volume) Hydrogen Chloride (2 volumes) Problem : Ratios could not be explained because the structure of “H”, “Cl” and “O” were unknown. “Hydrogen” (2 volumes) + “Oxygen” (1 volume) Steam (2 volumes) – Why not 3 volumes ? (1776-1856) Amadeo Avogadro: At STP, equal volumes of gas contain equal numbers of molecules. Molecules can be formed from atoms of different elements AND atoms of the same element. “Hydrogen” (2 x 22.4 L, 4 grams) + “Oxygen” (22.4 L, 32 grams) Steam (2 x 22.4 L, 36 grams) Eureka!! – In 1811, a relationship between molecules and mass is established!! “Hydrogen” = H 2 , Molar Mass = 2g; “Oxygen” = 0 2 , Molar Mass = 32g; and Water = H 2 O, Molar Mass = 18g. <50 years pass before Avogadro’s results are widely accepted by the scientific community. In 1858, Stanislao Cannizzaro champions Avogadro’s molecular theory by showing how it unifies organic and inorganic chemistry.> (1834-1907) Dimitry Mendeleyev: As a consequence of Avogadro’s insight, prepares the first accurate “Periodic Table of the Elements”. While only 63 elements were known at this time, through the use of the
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2009 for the course CH 318M taught by Professor Bocknack during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas.

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study guide ch 1 pt 1 - Professor M. J. Krische Chemistry...

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