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study guide ch 1 pt 3 - Professor M J Krische Chemistry...

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Professor M. J. Krische Chemistry 318M, Fall 2008 Chapter 1-Study Guide (Part 3 ) I. The Electronic Structure of Organic Molecules (Chapters 1) i. Historical Perspective ii. Lewis Structures iii. Molecular Shape (VSEPR) iv. Resonance Structures v. Atomic Orbitals vi. Molecular Orbitals vii. Hybrid Atomic Orbitals viii. Functional Groups vii. Hybrid Atomic Orbitals We know from VSEPR that methane (CH 4 ) has a tetrahedral geometry. If we try to construct methane (CH 4 ) using the atomic orbitals of carbon (2s 2 p x 1 p y 1 or 2s 1 p x 1 p y 1 p z 1 ) and hydrogen, we obtain an H-C-H bond angle of 90 o . This is inconsistent with the observed bond angle of methane of 109.5 o . How can this be? Atomic orbitals on the same atom can "mix" to give hybrid orbitals that are simply the sum and difference of the two orbitals. Again, the total number of orbitals is conserved. For example, an s-orbital and a p-orbital may combine to give two “sp-hybrid” orbitals that possess 50% s- and 50% p-orbital character.
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