ECL-MtBldg-Equakes

ECL-MtBldg-Equakes - Todays Outline Rifting and Mountain...

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1 1 Today’s Outline • Rifting and Mountain Building – active vs passive margins • Plate tectonics and earthquakes • Basic principles of earthquake geology • Anatomy of earthquakes: faults 2 Active Margins • San Andreas Fault – subduction of Farallon Plate (Oligocene Epoch) – forms Juan de Fuca and Cocos plates (Miocene Epoch) – right-lateral transform fault Oligocene Miocene 3 Active Margins • Accreted terranes – exotic fragments – during last 200 million yrs (early Jurassic) 4 Active Margins • Himalayas – Fore-arc basin – Suture Zone – Tibetan plateau – still rising today • Collision between which two plates? • What influence does the Tibetan plateau have on climate? • Related societal hazards? Paleocene Eocene
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2 5 Active Margins • Himalayas – Fore-arc basin – Suture Zone – Tibetan plateau – still rising today • Collision between which two plates? • What influence does the Tibetan plateau have on climate? • Related societal hazards? Miocene 6 Active Margins • Ridge & Valley Province, Appalachians, PA – fold & thrust belt 7 Stratigraphy • Law of Horizontality • Principle of Superposition • Cross-cutting relations 8 Active Margins • Appalachian Evolution – 3 orogenic episodes during the Paleozoic Era – Ordovician: Taconic orogeny (island collides, VA and NC). Eventually eroded. – Devonian: Acadian orogeny. Suturing to northern Europe – Late Carboniferous: Alleghanian orogeny. Collision with Africa assembling Pangaea Note to self: show little movie Taconic Acadian and Alleghanian passive cont margin
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3 9 Appalachian Provinces • Coastal plain
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ECL-MtBldg-Equakes - Todays Outline Rifting and Mountain...

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