Hand Sanitizer Lab Report

Hand Sanitizer Lab Report - Seta Degann BIOL-L113 11/24/08...

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Seta Degann BIOL-L113 11/24/08 The Effectiveness of Hand Sanitizers at Killing Certain Types of Bacteria Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to test how effective different hand sanitizers with and without ethyl alcohol were at killing different bacteria. I believe that the hand sanitizer with the highest amount of ethanol will be the most effect. This is because according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) more than 60% ethanol is required to kill and adequate amount of bacteria (Reynolds, Scott A.). The brands of hand sanitizer used were Dial (with ethanol), Germ-X (with ethanol), and Clean Well (without ethanol). The bacteria used were Stapholococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus salivarius . Dilutions of 10 -5 were made of each of these bacteria and spread onto two petri plates each, with a total of nine plates. Each plate was sectioned off into four quarters and in each quarter was placed a small paper disc. In the first three quarters a different hand sanitizer was placed respectively and in the last quarter sterile water was placed as a control. The plates were incubated for four days in 37°C. Dial and Germ-X were the most effective at killing all three types of bacteria, the sterile water had no effect, and in two of the plates the water disc was contaminated. This means that ethanol is the most effective at killing bacteria.
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Introduction Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that do not have a true nucleus but do have cell walls. Bacterial species can be classified into many different groups; two of the most common groups are gram- positive and gram-negative. What differentiates the two is the substance that the outer walls are made of. The cell walls surrounding gram-positive bacteria are made out of peptidoglycan, a lipid. The cell walls in gram-negative bacteria are made out of less peptidoglycan with carbohydrates called lipopolysaccharides attached to the lipid layer. The extra layer of lipopolysaccharides results in the gram- negative bacteria to be more resistant to antibiotics; this layer is also often toxic and harmful. The active ingredient in most hand sanitizers is ethyl alcohol. According to the Centers for Disease Control, hand sanitizers that contain less than 60% ethyl alcohol are not effective at killing bacteria (Reynolds). The purpose of this experiment is to test the effectiveness of hand sanitizer at killing different types of bacteria. The bacteria that will be used are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus salivarius . S. salivarius and S. aureus are gram-positive bacteria (Campbell et al.) and P. aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium (Todar). S. salivarius is a common bacterium that causes strep throat, an illness in humans that causes and sore throat and sometimes cold-like symptoms (Campbell et al.). S. aurues can cause minor skin infections
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but can also cause life-threatening illnesses such as pneumonia and meningitis. It is often found in the nose and skin of humans (Campbell
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Hand Sanitizer Lab Report - Seta Degann BIOL-L113 11/24/08...

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