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020609 - Zumdahl Chapter 14 ACIDS AND BASES Arrhenius...

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ACIDS AND BASES Zumdahl Chapter 14
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Arrhenius Concept y Acid – produce H + ions in aqueous solutions y Base – produce OH - ions in aqueous solutions Svante Arrhenius 1859 – 1927 Swedish Chemist Noble Prize 1903
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Bronsted – Lowry Definition y Acid – a proton, H + , donor y Base – a proton, H + , acceptor Johannes Bronsted 1879 – 1947 Danish Chemist Thomas Lowry 1874 – 1936 English Chemist
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Acid Dissociation y Conjugate acid – the species formed when a proton is added to a base y Conjugate base – the species formed when a proton is removed from an acid y Hydronium ion – (H 3 O + ) how H + ions actually exist in water
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Acid Dissociation y When an acid dissociates an equilibrium is established.
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Acid Strength
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Should the equilibrium constant for a strong acid be large, small, or can it not be determined? Large Small Cannot be determined 91% 1% 8% 1. Large 2. Small 3. Cannot be determined
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Relative Acid Strength
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Acid Strength y Which acid in each of the following pairs has the stronger conjugate base? { H 2 CO 3 or H 2 SO 4 { HCl or HF { HF or NH 4 + { HCN or HSO 4 -
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Different Types of Acids y Polyprotic – has more than one acidic proton, H
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